H2O Lewis Structure, Characteristics:47 Complete Quick Facts


H2O is the chemical formula for water. Water is considered as universal solvent. Here we are learning about H2O lewis structure, characterization and facts.

Water (H2O) molecule consists of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms which get linked with each other with two single covalent bonds. The chemical name of water is di- hydrogen mono- oxide. Water is and simplest molecule having simple form of lewis structure. The following are the given description about H2O lewis structure and its facts.

How to draw H2O lewis structure?

Lewis structure of H2O is drawn by remembering the sequence of following points:

  1. Determine the group positions of O and H atoms in periodic table.
  2. Note valence electrons of both O and H atoms and count total valence electrons of H2O lewis structure.
  3. Choose central atom which is least electronegative.
  4. Make bonding between all H and O atoms and mark lone electron pairs on it.
  5. Apply octet rule and check complete and incomplete octet of the H and O atoms in H2O lewis structure.
  6. Computation of formal charge existent on every H and O atoms of H2O lewis structure.
  7. Determine the shape, hybridization and bond angle of H2O lewis structure.
H2O lewis structure

H2O valence electrons

The H2O lewis structure resides of two elements mainly Hydrogen and oxygen atom. The H atom and O atom belongs to 1st and 16th periodic table group. Therefore, the H and O atoms have 1 and 6 valence electrons in its outer shell respectively.  So, the valence electrons present in H2O lewis structure is calculated as below:

Valence electrons present on hydrogen atoms of H2O = 1 x 2 (H) = 2

Valence electrons present on oxygen atom of H2O = 6 x 1 (O) = 6

Total valence electrons present on H2O lewis structure is = 2 (H) + 6 (O) = 8

Hence, H2O lewis structure has total eight valence electrons.

To evaluate total pairs of electrons available on H2O lewis structure, the valence electrons of H2O get divided by 2.

Total electron pairs of H2O lewis structure = 8 / 2 = 4

Therefore, total four electron pairs are present on H2O lewis structure.

h2o lewis structure
Valence electrons present on H2O lewis structure

H2O lewis structure octet rule

In H2O lewis structure, there are total eight valence electrons are present out of which four electrons are engaged in bonding between two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom forming single covalent (O-H) bonds.

As the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of H2O lewis structure forms two single covalent bonds within them so we have left more four valence electrons. These remaining four valence electrons should goes to central oxygen atom as hydrogen atom can’t take more than two electrons according to its valency.

Thus, the central O atom of H2O lewis structure has total eight electrons i.e. four bonding electrons and four non- bonding electrons. Hence, the oxygen atom has complete octet with the presence of eight electrons also both the hydrogen atom has two electrons by which its valency also get satisfied.

H2O lewis structure lone pairs

The H2O lewis structure has total eight valence electrons out of which four electrons being bonding electrons as they form two H-O/ O-H single covalent bonds and the remaining four valence electrons occupy place on central O atom as hydrogen atom cannot take more than two electrons.

Thus, the central O atom has four non- bonding electrons present on them which are lone pair electrons. Hence the H2O lewis structure has total two lone electron pairs which are present on central oxygen atom.

Two lone electron pairs on H2O lewis structure

H2O lewis structure formal charge

If the minimum formal charge is present on any lewis structure then the structure is quite stable. Formal charge of any lewis structure is being calculated by a given formula as follows:

Formal charge = (valence electrons – non-bonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons)

The evaluation of formal charge available on H2O lewis structure is done with evaluating the formal charge available on every H and O atom of H2O molecule. Let us first calculate the formal charge present on H and O atom of H2O lewis structure.

Hydrogen atom: Hydrogen atom has valence electrons in H2O = 01

                           Hydrogen atom has non- bonding electrons in H2O = 00

                           Hydrogen atom has bonding electrons in H2O = 02

Formal charge on Hydrogen atom of H2O lewis structure = (01 – 00– 2/2) = 00

Thus, hydrogen atom has zero formal charge on H2O lewis structure.

Oxygen atom:Oxygen atom has valence electrons in H2O = 06

                        Oxygen atom has non- bonding electrons in H2O = 04

                        Oxygen atom has bonding electrons in H2O = 04

Formal charge on oxygen atom of H2O lewis structure = (06 – 04 – 4/2) = 0

Hence, the oxygen atom has zero formal charge on H2O lewis structure.

Zero formal charge present on H2O lewis structure

H2O lewis structure resonance

Resonance structure of any molecule is only possible if it has more than two atoms and has multiple bonds. It should also contain some lone pair electrons and formal charge present on it. Thus, all these conditions to form resonance structure is not obeyed in H2O molecule, so H2O do not have resonance structures.

H2O lewis structure shape

In H2O lewis structure the central oxygen atom attached with two bonding hydrogen atoms with two single sigma or covalent bonds. Also the central O atom has two lone electron pairs present on it. Thus, as per VSEPR theory the H2O lewis structure has AX2E2 generic formula. Hence, H2O lewis structure has bent or V- shaped molecular shape and tetrahedral electron geometry.

H2O lewis structure shape

H2O hybridization

H2O lewis structure has bent or V- shaped molecular shape and tetrahedral geometry. All the atoms of H2O molecule are arranged in symmetrical manner and the central oxygen atom has sp3 hybridization.

H2O lewis structure angle

H2O lewis structure, the central O atom gets attached with two bonding hydrogen atoms and also it has two lone pair electrons. So, it has bent molecular shape and tetrahedral electron geometry. Also the central oxygen atom of H2O lewis structure has sp3 hybridization. Thus, the hydrogen oxygen hydrogen (H-O-H) bond angle of H2O lewis structure is 109.5 degree.

Bond angel of H2O lewis structure

H2O solubility

Water (H2O) is an universal solvent and mixed easily in many solutes and solid substances and gaseous substances. Generally H2O is soluble in polar solvents like

  • Acetone
  • Methanol
  • Ethanol
  • Ammonia (gas and liquid)
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Glucose
  • Honey
  • Alkali hydroxides

Water (H2O) is insoluble in non- polar solvents like:

  • Calcium hydroxide
  • Calcium sulphate
  • Hexane
  • Oils
  • Fats
  • Lipids
  • Benzene
  • Gases like H2, O2, N2, SO2, CO2, etc.

Is H2O soluble in water?

It is quite difficult to explain the solubility of same liquids like water. Actually the solubility rule is not applied on same liquids. As it get mixed with 100% concentration. When pure water gets dissolved in pure water it is called a RO (reverse osmosis reaction) ionization. It will actually just a little bit break a part into its ions as like following reaction,

H2O + H2O ↔ H3O+ + OH-

So the large sample of water and just the few molecules of water come together and produce H3O+ and OH-. So these positive and negative charges products are ions so we do have ions in the solution.

Is H2O an electrolyte?

A substance that dissolves in water to conduct electricity is known as electrolytes. Basically water is not an electrolyte or some sources consider water as a weak electrolyte. Water (H2O) is an solution in which electrolytes can dissolve to produce ions and conduct electricity.

Why water is not an electrolyte or very weak electrolyte?

Water is an solvent which dissolve electrolytes in it to form ions. Pure water is solvent and very weak conductor of electricity. Super pure or ultra- pure water contains some ions as H+ and OH- which is the very less concentration of ions i.e. 1×10−7Mol/L. Thus these ions can conduct electricity and hence the super pure water has exceptionally low electricity and not behaves as electrolyte.

How water is not an electrolyte or very weak electrolyte?

Pure or distilled water is not an electrolyte but the tap water or mineral water can behaves as electrolyte. In mineral water or tap water electricity can pass due to the presence of some extra ions or minerals like calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Chlorides (Cl-), Nitrates (NO3-), sulphates (SO42-), bicarbonates (HCO3-), etc.

Due to the presence of these ions in tap water ionization occurs and also water get ionised in H+ and OH- ions. These positive and negative ionic charges in water can carry electricity or current from one pole to another pole. But in distilled or pure water there is nothing is present in water to ionize and produce electricity. Thus distilled water is not an electrolyte.

Is H2O acidic or basic?

Pure water is considered as neutral in nature as it has the pH value of 7. Thus pure or distilled water is neither acidic nor basic in nature. But the mineral water or tap water is considered to be amphoteric in nature i.e. they can behave both as an acid and a base.

Why H2O is acidic or basic?

The chemical formula for water is H2O i.e. HOH, which on ionization get separated as H+ (hydrogen) ions and OH- (hydroxyl) ions. So, due to the presence of H+ ions in water it can show acidic nature when reacts with base. Also due to the presence of OH- ions in water it can show basic nature when reacts with acid.

How H2O is acidic or basic?

Water (H2O) is amphoteric in nature. It can donates proton (H+) ions which makes it acidic in nature and also it can accepts protons (H+) ions which makes it basic in nature. But it cannot do this a once at a time. The following are the reactions of water with acids and base which shows its amphoteric nature i.e. behaviours of both acid and base.

H2O + HCl → H3O+ + Cl-

Here water reacts with hydrochloric acid in which it accepts a proton (H+) ion from HCl and forms H3O+ ion and Cl- ions. Thus water is behaves as a conjugate base in this reaction as HCl donates proton and H2O accepts proton.

H2O + NH3 → NH4+ + OH-

Here water reacts with ammonia in which it donates proton (H+) ion to NH3 and form NH4+ (ammonium) ion and OH- (hydroxyl) ion. Thus, water behaves as a conjugate acid in this reaction as HN3 accepts proton and H2O donates proton.

Is H2O polar or nonpolar?

H2O behaves as polar molecule. As water molecule comprises of two H and one O atom which get linked with the covalent polar bonds. Thus it has unsymmetrical arrangements of atoms within its structure. So, water behaves as a polar molecule.

Why water is polar?

Polar molecules are those which have partially ionic atoms. The water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and one O atom, there is not equal sharing of electrons within O and H atoms. Also it has bent shape i.e. the unsymmetrical shape of water which has two partial charged poles positive H and negative O. Thus, water is polar in nature.

How water is polar?

The total dipole of H2O in which the 2 H atoms has a partial positive charge and 1 O atom has partial negative charge. The water has bent shape and the presence of two lone electrons pairs on oxygen atom creates repulsion and thus the O-H bond get bent shape i.e. unsymmetrical arrangement and polar nature.

Is H2O linear?

No, H2O is not a linear molecule in shape. H2O has a bent molecular shape. As the oxygen atom of H2O has two lone electron pairs due to which the repulsion creates within the molecule and the O-H bond get bent. Thus, H2O becomes bent in shape rather linear.

Why H2O is bent and not linear?

As per the VSEPR theory the H2O molecule having central atom bonded with two atoms and having two lone pair electrons are comes under AX2E2 generic formula. According to which the molecule has bent molecular shape and tetrahedral electron geometry. Thus the H2O molecule have the bent molecular shape and tetrahedral electron geometry thus it is not linear in shape.

How H2O is bent and not linear?

If we see the H2O lewis structure, the two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atoms get joined with each other with sigma covalent bonds. Also there is unequal sharing of electrons within the H and O atoms and the O atom having two lone electron pairs. Due to which the repulsion creates within the atom and the O-H bonds get pulled to form a bent shape due to repulsion and hence it is not linear.

Is H2O paramagnetic or diamagnetic?

Yes, water is diamagnetic in nature. The diamagnetic substances are the substances which have the paired electrons are present in the molecule. The H2O molecule has all paired electrons present in its structure. The paramagnetic substance having at least one unpaired electron present in its structure. Also it does not have permanent magnetism so it is not ferromagnetic.

Why H2O is diamagnetic?

H2O is diamagnetic in nature. When we applied external field on a glass container filled with water, the water in the container repels the external magnetic field. Also according to Molecular orbital theory of H2O, water is an triatomic unsymmetrical molecule having all paired even number of electrons thus it is diamagnetic.

How H2O is diamagnetic?

H2O molecule has total eighteen electrons i.e. two electrons of hydrogen atom and sixteen electrons of one oxygen atom. Thus H2O molecule has even number of electrons. Also all the valence electrons of H2O molecule is paired and thus it is diamagnetic in nature. Also water has the negative value of magnetic susceptibility as the diamagnetic molecules have negative values.

H2O boiling point

H2O (water) molecule has the boiling point of 212 degree Faraday or 100 degree Celsius. Thus the water is the substance which has high boiling point value. The boiling point of water is much higher at the coldest areas as compared to the areas with normal temperature or sunny areas.

Why H2O has high boiling point?

H2O molecules have very strong intermolecular force of attraction in coldest region as compared to the normal sunny reason. Due to which the water needs high energy and temperature to boils and also more time is needed to boil the water. Also the water molecule can form more hydrogen bonds so it has high boiling point (temperature) to get it boils.

How H2O has high boiling point?

In H2O molecule, there are two hydrogen atoms are present so each hydrogen atom can form hydrogen bonds with other polar compounds. Due to the presence of more hydrogen bonds water has more boiling points. So, the H2O being a bulky molecule and it is quite hard to break down this bonds. Thus the large amount of energy or temperature is required to boil the water.

Is H2O a trigonal planar?

Please see this question for the answer… Is H2O linear?

Is H2O a single bond?

Yes H2O molecule is consists of single bonds within two hydrogen and one central oxygen atoms. It cannot form multiple bond double or triple bonds.

Why H2O has single bonds?

H2O molecule has a central O atom which is connected with two bonding hydrogen atoms with two single covalent sigma bonds. This single covalent sigma bond of water molecule is a very strong bond in nature. As from the structure of H2O we can see the formation of single bonds within the molecule thus H2O has single bonds.

How H2O has single bonds?

The H2O lewsis structure has total eight valence electrons present in it. There are six valence electrons on central O atom and one valence electron on each hydrogen atom of H2O molecule. Each hydrogen atom get shared its one electron with central O atom to form single covalent sigma H-O and O-H bonds. Thus due to the sharing of one- one electron by H and O atoms they form single covalent bonds.

Is H2O balanced or unbalanced?

No, if we just add the diatomic elements or gases like H2 and O2 to form water molecule, then the reaction is not balanced. We have the equal or same number of atoms on both side of the reaction.

Why H2O are unbalanced?

Water is being formed with the reaction of hydrogen gas (H2) and oxygen gas (O2). If we directly add this both gases as it is as a diatomic gas to form water as a product then unequal number of atom are present in H2O molecule as compared to reactants of the reaction.

H2 + O2 → H2O

Thus, on the reactant side more atoms are present as compared to product side. So we have to balance the equation to make equal number of atoms on product side too. Thus it is an unbalanced reaction.

How H2O is unbalanced?

We have to balance the unbalanced reaction of H2 and O2 to make the balanced product which is water. In a balanced equation both the reactant side and product side must have equal number of atoms of the molecules. Thus we have to arrange the equal number of atoms by adding or multiplying with the molecules some number.

H2 + O2 → H2O

2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

Now, the second reaction of water formation shows the balanced reaction as it has equal number of atoms present on reactant side as well as product side. We have added 2 molecules of hydrogen gas to get 2H2O molecule.

Is H2O conductive?

No, H2O (pure water) is not conductive in nature. It is a bad conductor of heat and electricity. But the mineral water or tap water can show weak conductive nature.

Why H2O is not conductive?

Pure or distilled water is not good conductor. To conduct electricity there is the presence of charged ions which can move on the application of electric field. In pure or distilled water there are no ions or impurities are present rather only H+ and OH- ions are present in pure water. So it can’t conduct electricity and thus pure water is not conductive.

How H2O is not conductive?

Tap water or mineral water can be weak conductor of electricity as it contains various suspended ions like Ca+, Mg+, Na+, K+, Cl-, etc. Due to which by applying external energy the ions get move and conduct electricity. Thus tap water or mineral water is very weak conductor of electricity but pure water is not conductive.

Is H2O capable of hydrogen bonding?

Yes, H2O is capable of at least four hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules. Due to the presence of more electronegative O atom H2O is capable of forming hydrogen bonds.

Why H2O is capable of hydrogen bonding?

In H2O molecule, there are two hydrogen atoms and two lone electron pairs on O atoms. Both the two hydrogen atoms and two lone pair electrons of O atom can form four hydrogen bonds with other polar compounds.

How H2O is capable of hydrogen bonding?

The two hydrogen atoms of H2O molecule has partial positive charge and the central O atom of H2O having two lone electron pairs are partially negative charged. These two partial positive charged hydrogen atoms can form hydrogen bonds with partial negative charge side of other polar compound.

Similarly the central more electronegative O atom with two lone pairs can form hydrogen bonds with partial positive side of other polar compounds. Thus it is capable of forming four hydrogen bonds.

Hydrogen bonding of H2O molecule

Is H2O cation or anion?

No, H2O is not cation or anion rather it is a neutral molecule as there is no positive or negative charge present on H2O molecule.

Why H2O is not cation or anion?

Cation is the positively charged species and the anion is negatively charged species.  H2O molecule has zero formal charge thus it is a neutral molecule has no charge present on it.

How H2O is not cation or anion?

The H2O lewis structure has total zero formal charge. The formal charge of two hydrogen atoms is zero and formal charge on oxygen atom is also zero. Thus H2O molecule has no positive or negative charge present on it. So, it is not a cation or anion.

Is H2O double bond?

Please see the answer… Is H2O a single bond?

Is H2O dipole- dipole?

Yes H2O molecule is polar molecule and having dipole- dipole intermolecular interaction within H and O atoms.

Why H2O is dipole- dipole?

H2O is a polar compound having bent molecular shape and having unsymmetrical arrangement of atoms i.e. unequal sharing of electrons in H2O molecule. Thus there is a net dipole moment is created on the H2O molecule and having dipole dipole intermolecular interaction.

How H2O is dipole dipole?

In H2O molecule, the central O atom is more electronegative than H atoms and there is unequal sharing of electrons thus having bent shape. Also O atom has two lone electron pairs due to which repulsion is created within it and forming partial positive charge on two H atoms and partial negative charge on O atom. Thus there is a dipole- dipole interaction within H and O atoms of H2O molecule.

Is H2O diatomic?

No, H2O is not a diatomic molecule rather it a triatomic (polyatomic) unsymmetrical molecule having two hydrogen and one oxygen atom present on it. H2O molecule has two elements i.e. hydrogen and oxygen atoms, but the total number of atoms present in H2O is three i.e. two H and one O and hence it is triatomic.

Is H2O electron deficient?

No, H2O is not an electron deficient compound. Even it is an electron rich species as it has two lone electron pairs on O atoms to donate with other polar compounds.

Why H2O is not electron deficient?

The electron deficient species are having insufficient number of electrons to complete the octet of central atom. In H2O, there is quite sufficient number of electrons present in the molecule to complete the octet of central O atom and thus O atom has complete octet in H2O molecule. Hence it is not electron deficient.

How H2O is not electron deficient?

The central O atom of H2O has 6 valence electrons and the bonded two H atoms have 1 valence electron each. These one electron of hydrogen get shared with oxygen atom to form single covalent bonds and thus the O atom now have total eight electrons i.e. complete octet. So, O atom has two bonds pairs and two lone pairs. These lone pairs of H2O can donate with other compounds therefore it is electron rich.

Is H2O electrophile?

Yes H2O is an electrophile due to the presence of two positively charged hydrogen ions. H2O can donated its two positively charge H+ ions (protons) when reacted with other nucleophilic compounds and thus H2O behaves as a nucleophile.

Is H2O ferromagnetic?

Please see the answer… Is H2O paramagnetic or diamagnetic?

Is H2O gas or liquid?

H2O is a liquid compound and not a gaseous compound naturally but the formation of liquid H2O is done by the condensation of H2 gas and O2 gas in the atmosphere.

Why H2O is liquid?

The state of matter tells about the arrangement of particles of any compound thus forming shape of solid, liquid or gases. H2O is liquid as it has less particles and it cannot for a shape of H2o molecule thus it is a liquid compound.

How H2O is liquid?

H2O is formed with the condensation reaction of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas in the atmosphere. Thus it can fall down in the form of rain on earth’s surface. H2O on applying external temperature or pressure can convert into steam or vapours but it cannot being a gas and hence it is a liquid.

Is H2O hydrogen bonding?

Please see the answer… Is H2O capable of hydrogen bonding?

Is H2O hydroxide?

Yes H2O has hydroxide ion in its structure. H2O molecule is formed with H2 gas and O2 gas forming H2O liquid. On doing ionization of H2O molecule it get ionize into H+ ions and OH- ions. Due to the presence of OH- hydroxyl group, H2O comes under hydroxide.

Is H2O hydrophobic?

No, H2O is not hydrophobic but it is hydrophilic in nature. As H2O is a polar compound and forming able to form hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules. Also H2O has lone pair electrons due to which it can accept more H+ ions to form hydrogen bonds.

Is H2O intermolecular or intramolecular?

Water is polar molecule with intermolecular hydrogen bonds, thus H2O is intermolecular, but when the ice get formed the bonds within neighbouring H2O molecule is interamolecular.

Why H2O is intermolecular?

In H2O the water molecules are joined together with hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds are quite strong kind of intermolecular force as compared to other compounds.

How H2O is intermolecular?

The central O atom of H2O has partial positive charge and the two H atoms has partial negative charge thus the O atom of one H2O forms a strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds with H atom of another molecule.

Is H2O London dispersion?

Yes, H2O has London dispersion forces too due to the presence of hydrogen bond. Hydrogen bonds are much stronger than dipole induced dipole bond and London dispersion bond. Due to the casual dispersion of momentary polarization, London dispersion force is weak in H2O.

Is H2O liquid or aqueous?

Please see the answer … Is H2O gas or liquid?

Is H2O negative or positive?

Please see the answer… Why H2O cation or anion?

Is H2O organic or inorganic?

H2O is an inorganic fluid as the structure of H2O does not contain carbon atom with hydrogen atom. The organic compounds are those which contains hydrocarbons i.e. carbon and hydrogen containing compounds. Hence, H2O is not organic but it is inorganic.

Is H2O oxidized or reduced?

Water cannot oxidized or reduced basically but it can behave as both alternately by reacting with some oxidizing and reducing agents. H2O can reduce fluorine into hydrogen fluoride.

2H2 + 2H2O → O2 + 4HF

Likewise, water can oxidize sodium metal to sodium hydroxide.

2Na + 2H2O → H2 + 2NaOH

Is H2O reactant or product?

H2O is a product and not reactant. H2O get formed with the reaction of reactants like H2 and O2 and the product formed is H2O, therefore, h2O is a product and not reactant.

H2 + O2 (reactants) → 2H2O (product)

Is H2O polyatomic?

Please see the answer… Is H2O diatomic?

Is H2O symmetrical or asymmetrical?

H2O is asymmetrical in nature due to the molecular shape and electron geometry as per VSEPR theory.

Why H2O is asymmetrical?

H2O is a polar molecule due to the asymmetrical arrangements of atoms in H2O structure. The molecular shape and electron geometry of H2O is bent and tetrahedral. Thus it is asymmetrical in nature.

How H2O is asymmetrical?

The central O atom of H2O molecule has two lone electron pairs due to which the repulsion creates in H2O molecule and so the H-O and O-H bonds get pushed and form V or bent shape and tetrahedral geometry.

Is H2O volatile?

H2O is a non- volatile or very less volatile liquid due to the presence of hydrogen bonds within the molecule.

Why H2O is non- volatile?

As less the hydrogen bonding is present in the molecule more volatile it is. In H2O there is more hydrogen bonding all over the structure so it is non- volatile.

How H2O is non- volatile?

In volatile compounds the intermolecular forces are weak and in non- volatile substance there is strong intermolecular forces. As H2O has hydrogen bonds which is strong intermolecular forces holding the H and O atoms of water molecule, hence it is non- volatile molecule.

Conclusion:

H2O lewis structure has 8 valence electrons with two bond pairs and two lone pairs. Two H atoms attached with central O atom with covalent bonds. O atom has complete octet and no formal charge is present on it. H2O has bent shape and tetrahedral geometry with sp3 hybridization and 109.5 degree bond angle.

Dr. Shruti Ramteke

Hello everyone I am Dr. Shruti M Ramteke, i did my Ph.D in chemistry. I have five years of teaching experience for 11-12 standard, B,Sc and MSc in chemistry subject. I have published total five research articles during Ph.D on my research work and i have fellowship from UGC for my Ph.D. My Masters with specilization Inorganic chemistry and my graduation with chemistry, zoology and environmental science subjects. thank You

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