H+ Lewis Structure, Characteristics: 23 Quick Facts


H+ is the chemical formula for hydron or hydrogen ion or cation.

The hydrogen nucleus has general name called Hydron, which is used deprived of concerns to the nuclear mass of hydrogen. H+ ion has some synonyms like proton, hydrogen ion or cation. It comes under the members of atomic nucleus, i.e. a monovalent inorganic ion, monoatomic hydrogen and a monoatomic cation.

How to draw H+ lewis structure?

We have to follow few steps while drawing the lewis structure of any molecule. Here we are discussing H+ lewis structure by considering following steps:

  1. Note the group periodic table position of hydrogen atom.
  2. Count the valence electrons present on hydrogen atom.
  3. If the molecule has two or more atoms then the central atom is that which is more electronegative than other atoms.
  4. Then create bonding within central atom and outer bonding atoms.
  5. Note the lone electrons pairs present in the structure.
  6. Check whether the atoms of the lewis structure have complete or incomplete octets.
  7. Calculate formal charge present on lewis structure.
  8. Predict the shape and geometry, hybridization and bond angle of the lewis structure.
h+ lewis structure
H+ lewis structure

H+ valence electrons

The hydrogen atom has its place to 1st group in the periodic table. Thus, it has only one valence electron in its outermost valence shell orbital. The hydrogen atom release or lose its one electron and form H+ ion (hydrogen cation).

Valence electron on hydrogen atom = 01

Valence electrons on H+ lewis structure (hydrogen cation) = 01 – 01 = 00

Thus, there is no valence electron present on H+ lewis structure due to the donation of electron by hydrogen atom. Also there is no electrons pairs are present on it.

H+ lewis structure octet rule

The molecule which has less than eight electrons have incomplete octet. In H+ lewis structure, the maximum valency of hydrogen atom is two i.e. it can possess maximum two electrons in its outermost valence shell orbital.

Even the hydrogen atom has only one valence electron. The hydrogen atom get loses its one valence electron to being H+ ion (hydrogen cation). Hence there is no valence electrons remains in the outermost valence shell orbital of hydrogen atom. Therefore, the octet rule is not applicable on H+ lewis structure or it has incomplete octet due to the lack of electrons.

H+ lewis structure lone pairs

The H+ ion or cation does not contain any valence electron as it donates it electron and being an positively charged cation. Due to donation of its single electron it has zero electrons. Hence, there is no lone electron pairs are present on H+ ion as it have not any valence electrons present on it.

H+ lewis structure formal charge

If the lewis structure contains any formal charge i.e. positive or negative charge present in any lewis structure. Then the lewis structure is being more stable in nature. The formal charge calculation is done with the help of a particular formula given as below:

Formal charge = (valence electrons – non-bonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons)

To calculate the formal charge of H+ lewis structure we have to calculate the formal charge present on hydrogen atom.

Hydrogen atom: The hydrogen atom contains valence electrons in H+ ion = 01

                           The hydrogen atom contains non – bonding electrons in H+ ion = 00

                           The hydrogen atom contains bonding electrons in H+ ion = 00

Hence, the formal charge on hydrogen atom of H+ lewis structure is = (01 – 00 – 0/2) = +1

Therefore, H+ lewis structure has +1 (plus one) formal charge as calculated above.

H+ lewis structure resonance

The H+ lewis structure, the hydrogen atom contains only one valence electron. This one valence electron gets donated by hydrogen atom to being a H+ ion. So, there is zero electrons in H+ lewis structure or H+ ion.

It has no multiple bonds and no lone electron pairs on H+ ion for movement of electrons and for multiple bonding. Hence, the H+ ion just contains only +1 formal charge does not satisfy the condition of making resonance structure. Therefore, the resonance structure of H+ lewis structure is not possible.

H+ lewis structure shape

The H+ lewis structure is the monoatomic ion or cation, which does not, contains any bonding atoms attached to it. Also it does not contain any valence electron or lone pair of electron.

Thus, it does not obey the conditions of VSEPR theory. Therefore the H+ lewis structure do not have any molecular shape or electron geometry as the H+ ion is only a mono-atomic cation and not a molecular compound.

H+ lewis structure angle

The H+ lewis structure or H+ ion or cation being an mono – atomic cation. It is not attached with any other atom or element. Even the hydrogen atom lost its one electron due to which it it forms an positively charged cation i.e. H+ ion.

These H+ ion does not obeys the VSEPR theory and do not have any molecular shape and electron geometry. Also it does not have any hybridization. Hence, the H+ ion does not have any bond angle.

H+ hybridization

The H+ ion or cation is a mono-atomic ion, which contains only one hydrogen atom. Hence, the H+ ion (hydron or hydrogen ion) does not have any hybridization.

Why H+ ion does not have hybridization?

The hydrogen atom basically can form only one bond as it contains only one valence electron. But as the hydrogen atom lost its one electron and forms H+ cation (hydrogen ion). Thus it does not overlap with other orbital of other atoms to make a hybrid orbital. Hence, the H+ lewis structure do not have any hybridization.

Is H+ a lewis acid or base?

H+ ion (hydrone or hydrogen ion) is an lewis acid in nature. Due to zero valence electrons present on H+ ion or cation, it is capable of accepting electron pairs.

Why H+ is a lewis acid?

The hydrogen atom donates its one valence electron and form a hydrogen ion (cation). Thus, the H+ ion has zero valence electrons. So, it has the capacity to gain or accept electrons or electron pairs from other basic compounds. Hence, the H+ ion is a lewis acid.

How H+ is a lewis acid?

When the H+ ion gets reacts with the lewis base like OH- ion. The H+ ion is being an electron acceptor in nature and OH- ion is being an electron donor in nature. Thus, they form the H2O molecule (water). Therefore, the H+ ion is an lewis acid.

H+ + OH → H2O (H+ = lewis acid, OH- = lewis base)

Is H+ an acid or base?

H+ ion is an acid. Acids are the compounds which release the H+ ions in the solution. Thus, H+ ions are acidic in nature as the most of the acidic solutions produce H+ ions.

Why H+ is acid?

H+ ion can behave both as Lewis acid and Bronstead Lowry acid. The bronstead Lowry acids are those which can donates a hydrogen ion or proton. Thus, the H+ ions donate it self when reacted to water and form H3O+ ions in water solution.

Hence H+ can behaves as Bronstead Lowry acid. Similarly, the lewis acids are those which can accepts electrons from other bases. H+ ion does not contain any valence electrons and are electron acceptors. So, H+ ions can also behave like lewis acids.

How H+ is acid?

The substance or chemical compounds which have high H+ ion concentration are known to be acids. The strong acids gets dissociates or ionizes in aqueous medium. When strong acid like HCl gets mixed in water, it get ionizes as H+ and Cl- ions in water and thus it gives up its H+ ion in water to form H3O+ ions. Hence the H+ ion is acidic ion.

HCl → H+ + Cl-

H+ + H2O → H3O+

Is H+ is a proton?

Yes, H+ is a proton. As the hydrogen atom contains one electron and one proton. Here, here one valence electrons of hydrogen atom donates and forms a positively charged H+ ion known as proton.

Why H+ is a proton?

The hydrogen ion lost its one valence electron and thus it has remaining only one proton in its nucleus. Thus the positive charge get created on hydrogen atom and being a hydrogen ion i.e. a cation. So, H+ ion also refers as proton.

How H+ is a proton?

The hydrogen atom composed of one negatively charged electron, one positively charged proton and zero neutrons. These one negatively charged electron of hydrogen atom gets donated and only remains the positively charged proton in the nucleus of hydrogen atom.

Due to the loss of that one electron of hydrogen atom, the hydrogen ion or cation produced a positive charge which cause because of the presence of positively charged proton in hydrogen atom nucleus. Thus, H+ ion is a proton.

Is H+ hydrogen?

No, H+ ion is not same as hydrogen atom. H+ is an ion which is a positively charged cation and hydrogen (H2) is a diatomic molecule present in gaseous form. Also the hydrogen in atomic form does not contain charge on it.

Why H+ ion is not hydrogen?

The H+ ion is ionic in nature which is a positively charged cation formed due to the loss of one electron of hydrogen atom. The hydrogen atom is an element composed if one valence electron in and one positively charged proton. Thus, H+ ion and hydrogen (H) atom is different in nature and hence H+ ion is not hydrogen.

How H+ ion is not hydrogen?

The hydrogen atom is present in elemental form in periodic table containing 1s electronic configuration and occupy the position at 1st group in the periodic table.

The H+ ion can also form by hydrogen atom due to the loss of one valence electron in it. The positive charge on H+ ion is due to the presence of proton in the nucleus of hydrogen atom. Therefore, hydrogen atom and H+ ion both are different moieties.

Image showing hydrogen atom and hydrogen (H+) ion

Is H+ hydronium?

No, H+ ion is not a basically hydronium ion but it can form hydronium ion when added to water. As the H+ ion cannot exists freely in aqueous medium.

Why H+ ion forms hydronium?

The ionic size of hydrogen ion (H+ ion) is 1.5 x 10-3. This size is very small or tiny as compared with the basic atomic or ionic size of hydrogen due to which the hydrogen ion (H+ ion) does not freely exists.

Thus, when any acidic solution added to water medium first it produces H+ ions but it cannot move freely due to its tiny size, so it gets added to water molecules and forms hydronium ion.

How H+ ion forms hydronium?

When any acid gets react with water, the acid gets ionizes into aqueous solution due to which the hydrogen (H+) ion concentration increases into water. These hydrogen ions get attached with water (H2O) molecules and forms H3O+ (hydronium) ions. This hydronium behaves as a conjugate acid of water solution.

In water molecule, there are lone electron pairs present on oxygen atom of H2O molecule. The H+ (hydrogen) ion accepts the lone electron pairs from the oxygen atom of water molecule and gets attached to it to form a hydronium (H3O+) ion. Therefore H+ ion forms hydronium ion.

H+ + H2O → H3O+

Is H+ aqueous?

H+ ion cannot exists as any matter phase like solid, liquid or gases as it is in ionic form i.e. a positively charged cation. But when any acidic solution is added to aqueous medium like water the H+ ion concentration increases in aqueous solution.

Why H+ is not aqueous?

The H+ is an cation which gets produced due to the donation of electron from hydrogen atom. The molecular hydrogen is available in gaseous form as the hydrogen atom cannot occur freely.

Thus two hydrogen atom linked with each other to form H2 molecule which is in gaseous form. But hydrogen ion does not show any shape or geometry or hybridization or bond angle due to the absence of electrons in it. Hence, the H+ is not aqueous.

Is H+ an ion?

Yes, H+ is an ion as it has the positive charge on it. Thus it is being a cation due to positive charge on hydrogen ion.

Why H+ is an ion?

H+ is an ion which is formed due to the loose of one electron from hydrogen atom. The hydrogen atom composed of one proton and one electron. This one electron of hydrogen atom get donated and just remained a positively charged proton. Thus, the positive charge gets generated on hydrogen ion and being a cation (H+ ion).

Is H+ cation?

Yes H+ ion is a cation because it has a positive charge present on it.

Why H+ is a cation?

Hydrogen atom donates its one electron due to which it has only a positively charged proton in its nucleus. Thus, this positive charge gets generated on whole hydrogen which makes it a cation. Hence, H+ ion is a cation due to presence of proton alone.

Is H+ isoelectronic with neon?

No, H+ is not isoelectronic with neon. H+ ion does not contain any electron thus it cannot be isoelectronic with any other element.

Why H+ is not isoelectronic with neon?

Isoelectronic means the atoms or elements contain the equal number of electrons or similar electronic configuration.  Neon is an inert gas and contains ten electrons. The hydrogen atom lost its electron and forms H+ ion. Thus H+ ion does not have any electron as it is a cation. Hence, H+ ion is not isoelectronic with neon.

Is H+ liquid?

No, H+ ion is not a liquid because it is a cation present in ionic form which does not have any particular structure or state of matter and hence it is not a liquid.

Why H+ is not liquid?

H+ ion is an individual or free ion i.e. positively charge cation. The ions cannot occupy any state of matter as it do not have any shape or size or geometry also its does not have any hybridization or bond angle due to lack of electron. Hence, H+ ion is not a liquid in nature.

Is H+ positive or negative?

H+ ion is a positive ion due to the presence of single proton in the nucleus of hydrogen atom.

Why H+ is positive?

H+ ion is a positive ion i.e. it is a cation. H+ ion is formed by the donation of one valence electron of hydrogen atom. Hence the hydrogen atom only remains with a proton in its nucleus which is positively charged. Therefore, the H+ ion is a positive ion due to presence of proton only.

Is H+ stable?

No, H+ ion is not stable in nature as it is an electrically charged species and the charges species are mostly less stable than the neutral form of atoms.

Why H+ is not stable?

H+ ion is not stable species. The hydrogen atom in its neutral form is stable atom. But the hydrogen atom lost its one electron and form H+ ion due to the presence of proton only. Basically the stability of any species depends on its environment or container in which it gets placed. But H+ ion needs to gain electron to occupy a stable state. Hence, the H+ ion is not stable.

Is H+ soluble in water?

No, H+ ion is an individual cation which cannot soluble in water. But the strong acids when dissolve in water produces more number of H+ ions in water.

Why H+ not soluble in water?

H+ ion is a Free State cation which is produced due to loss of electron from hydrogen atom. Even hydrogen gas is non – polar and sparingly soluble in water.

But the strong acids like hydrogen halide (HCl, HI, etc.) when dissolved in water get dissociates as H+ and Cl- ions. Thus produces more H+ ions in water and these H+ ions forms bond with more electronegative oxygen atom of water molecules to produce H3O+ ions in aqueous solution.

Is H+ the same as H3O+?

Yes, H+ ion is same as H3O+ ion in aqueous solution. Hydronium (H3O+) ion is a hydrated form of hydrogen (H+) ion. The H+ ion gets linked with H2O molecule and forms H3O+ ion. Thus H+ ion and H3O+ ion considered as same.

Why H+ the same as H3O+?

In aqueous medium the solvent used is water. the water molecule contains the electronegative oxygen atom which has two lone electron pairs. The oxygen atom donates its one lone pair electron to H+ ion which does not have any electron.

Thus, H+ ion forms H3O+ ion in aqueous solution. Hence, H3O+ is same as H+ (aq). The following equations are referred in this reaction:

H2O(l) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)

H2O(l) → H+(aq) + OH-(aq)

H+ + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq)

Is H+ the same as OH-?

No, H+ ion is not same as OH- ions as they both have opposite charges. H+ is positively charged cation and OH- is negatively charged anion. Both have different properties and hence H+ is not same as OH-.

Why H+ is not same as OH-?

H+ ion is an electron acceptor because it does not have electrons and OH- is electron donor because it has lone pair electrons on oxygen atom to donate. In aqueous or neutral medium like water H+ and OH- ions are present in equal amount.

H+ is a non-polar and OH- is polar. But if the concentration of H+ ions increases the solution becomes acidic and if the OH- ion concentration increases the solution becomes basic. Therefore, H+ is not same as OH-.

Conclusion:

H+ ion is known as hydron or hydrogen ion. H+ lewis structure has zero valence electrons. It has only one positively charged proton. The octet rule is not applied on it due to zero electrons. The H+ lewis structure has +1 formal charge. H+ lewis structure does not have any shape, hybridization and bond angle.

Dr. Shruti Ramteke

Hello everyone I am Dr. Shruti M Ramteke, i did my Ph.D in chemistry. I have five years of teaching experience for 11-12 standard, B,Sc and MSc in chemistry subject. I have published total five research articles during Ph.D on my research work and i have fellowship from UGC for my Ph.D. My Masters with specilization Inorganic chemistry and my graduation with chemistry, zoology and environmental science subjects. thank You

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