GaH3 lewis structure, Characteristics:17 Facts To Know


In this article we will discuss about GaH3 Lewis structure , characteristics : 17 Fact to Know

Gallium hydride is a molecule in which gallium (Ga) is attached to three hydrogen atoms. Its molecular weight is 72.74. it is also called trihydridogallium (GaH3) or gallane, which is an inorganic compound photosensitive colorless gas.

How to draw GaH3 lewis structure ?

In the GaH3 Lewis structure, Gallium (Ga) is a metal and Hydrogen (H) is a gas. So, the hydrogen atom in the gallium hydroxide has 1 valence electron while the gallium atom in the gallium hydroxide has three valence electrons Considering there are 3 hydrogen atoms in the gallane (GaH3) molecule hence total, 3 valence electrons of a hydrogen atom. So, in total, we have 3+3 = 6 valence electrons. 

out of the two atoms, gallium is the least electronegative atom (1.81), so while drawing Lewis’s structure of gallium hydride we can put gallium (Ga) in the center and three hydrogen atoms around it. Then connect the gallium (Ga) and three hydrogen atoms with single bonds. We’ve used six electrons so far (one bond = two electrons). Each hydrogen atom and gallium atom to fulfilling the octet rule, Gallium donates three electrons to three hydrogen atoms and completes their octet.

GaH3 Lewis structure resonance

The gallium hydroxide molecule does not show resonance because this molecule does not contain a double bond for the delocalization of electrons, also there is no movement of electrons in the molecule hence GaH3 does not exhibit resonance and also there is no resonating structure for GaH3.

GaH3 Lewis structure shape

Trihydridogallium or gallane (GaH3) has trigonal planer geometry. With the three Sp3 hybrid orbitals.

3D Lewis structure of GaH3 wikipedia

GaH3 Lewis structure formal charge

The Lewis structure formal charges of GaH3 can be calculated by the following formula  FC = V – N – B/2 Where V = no. of valence electrons , N = no. of non–bonding electrons ,  B = no. of bonding electrons 

The formal charge of the GaH3 Lewis structure

FC of Ga in GaH3 Lewis structure = 3 – 0 – 3/2 = 0

FC of H in GaH3 Lewis structure = 1-0-1/2 = 0 In the gallane (GaH3) molecule the Gallane and hydrogen have zero formal charges.

GaH3 Lewis structure bond angle

The gallium hydride is trigonal planer geometry with a bond angle of 120o

GaH3 Lewis structure octet rule

 In the gallium hydroxide (GaH3) molecule gallium (Ga) requires to donate its outermost three electrons to the hydrogen atom and complete its outermost orbitals octet, while the hydrogen (H) atom has only one electron in its outermost shell therefore it accepts one electron from the gallium atom and completes its duplet, in this way three hydrogen atom accepts three electrons from gallium atom and complete their octet and become stable.  

The octet rule itself states that the molecule is said to be stable when all the atoms in the molecule complete their octet by sharing electrons with each other.

GaH3 lewis structure lone pairs

Gallium hydride (GaH3) has no lone pairs. The lone pair on the atom is denoted by a dot.  Lone pairs are the pair of electrons which are not participating in bond formation in the molecule, generally, lone pairs are present on the central atom. 

The lone pair represents many significant properties of a molecule like the shape of that molecule, Gallane (GaH3) does not contain lone pair of electrons, it contains all bond pairs of electrons.

GaH3 valence electrons

In the GaH3 Lewis structure, Gallium (Ga) is a metal and Hydrogen (H) is a gas. So, the hydrogen atom in the gallium hydroxide has 1 valence electron while the gallium atom in the gallium hydroxide has three valence electrons Considering there are 3 hydrogen atoms in the gallane (GaH3) molecule hence total, 3 valence electrons of a hydrogen atom. So, in total, we have 3+3 = 6 valence electrons. 

GaH3 hybridization

In Gallane (GaH3) molecule gallium atom undergoes sp3 hybridization as,

Ga = [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1  

H = 1s1  

The gallium atom contains three p unpaired electrons and the hydrogen atom has 1s unpaired electron hence gallium atom donates three electrons to the three hydrogen atoms and forms three-sigma Ga – H bond. Which form three sp3 hybrid orbitals. And undergo sp3 hybridization due to sp3 hybridization GaH3 has trigonal planer geometry.

GaH3 solubility

Gallane (GaH3) is a nonpolar molecule which is soluble in tetramethyl ethylenediamine polar solvent. And insoluble in a nonpolar solvent.

Is GaH3 soluble in water

Gallium hydride (GaH3) is in gaseous form and insoluble in water it is a nonpolar molecule, which dissolves in polar solvent only.

Is Gah3 a strong electrolyte ?

Gallium hydride (GaH3) is not a strong electrolyte because it is not easily dissociated into ions it is not soluble in water. it acts as an electrolyte in tetramethyl ethylenediamine polar solvent because GaH3 dissolve in that polar solvent and dissociates into ions in that solvent.

Is Gah3 acidic or basic ?

Gallium hydride is Bronsted acidic in nature.

Is Gah3 polar or nonpolar ?

Gallium hydride (GaH3) is formed by combining one gallium and three hydrogen atoms the electronegativity of the gallium atom is 1.81 and that of electronegativity of the hydrogen atom is 2.20 the difference between the electronegativity of hydrogen and gallium is 0.39.

 This much electronegativity difference between gallium and hydrogen indicates that the electron pairs are weekly attracted to the hydrogen atom hence Ga-H bond in the GaH3 molecule is non-polar. The electronegativity difference between gallium and a hydrogen atom is very less hence the hydrogen and gallium atoms are weekly attracted to each other hence Ga-H bond is highly non-polar.

Is GaH3 linear ?

Gallium hydride is not a linear molecule it is trigonal planer geometry.

Is Gah3 paramagnetic or diamagnetic ?

    

Gallium hydride (GaH3) shows diamagnetic nature because gallane (GaH3) contains all paired electrons which are 10 in number hence it is strongly attracted by the applied magnetic field and forms an induced magnetic field in the opposite direction.

Also, those atoms, ions or molecule which contain lone pair electrons or vacant outermost orbital has a paramagnetic nature while that atom, ion or molecule containing all paired electrons are diamagnetic in nature.

GaH3 boiling point

The boiling point of gallium is very high which is 22040C while the gallium hydride (GaH3) boiling point cannot be determined. The gallium hydride (GaH3) is in the viscous liquid form its melting point is -15oC.

Conclusion

In the above article we will discuss the Lewis structure of GaH3 and its 19 facts which includes Lewis structure, lone pair, the shape of the molecule, hybridization, resonance, octet rule, formal charges, solubility, Acid or basic nature, polar or non-polar, bond angle, paramagnetic or diamagnetic nature, boiling point etc.

Darshana Fendarkar

Hi....I am Darshana Fendarkar, I have completed my Ph.D. from the University of Nagpur. My area of specialization is Inorganic Chemistry. I have an experience as a Chemist at Earthcare Pvt. Ltd. Also I have 2 years of experience in teaching. Currently, I am working with Lambdageek as a Subject Matter Expert. Let's connect through LinkedIn-https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-darshana-fendarkar-00380540

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