Gadolinium Properties (25 Facts You Should Know)

Gadolinium properties are reliable to list out some evidences of unique identity of gadolinium element in the modern periodic table. Let us define the properties below.

Gadolinium properties refer to the characteristics of the element Gadolinium. Mendeleev, the former of modern periodic table had recognised some special attributes of Gadolinium that became the measurable point to put it in a specific position in the table.

Gadolinium properties including both physical and chemical; facts of the element are the points of unique verification of the element. Melting point, boiling point, electronegativity, isotopes and many other properties of the element would be discussed throughout this article.

Gadolinium symbol

The symbol of Gadolinium is Gd, which is mainly the short form the word ‘Gadolinium’.

Gadolinium group in periodic table

There is no specific group in periodic table where Mendeleev could have put Gadolinium.

Gadolinium period in periodic table

Gadolinium is placed at Period 6 with other Lanthanide elements in the table.

Gadolinium block in periodic table

Gadolinium can be found in the f block of the periodic table due to the presence of f orbital in the atoms of the element.

Gadolinium atomic number

The atomic number of one Gadolinium atom is 64. It means one gadolinium atom possesses 64 protons and 64 electrons by balancing positive and negative charges inside the atoms respectively.  

gadolinium properties
Atomic number of Gadolinium

Gadolinium atomic Weight

The standard atomic weight of Gadolinium atoms is obtained as 157.25 u, which is a relative term of atomic mass in Chemistry.

Gadolinium Electronegativity according to Pauling

The amount of electronegativity implied by gadolinium is 1.20 and it is a unit less property, which is measured in Pauling scale.

Gadolinium atomic Density

The atomic density of Gadolinium element has been calculated as 7.90 g/cm3, which is a ratio of atomic mass and volume of an atom of Gadolinium.

Gadolinium melting point

The melting point of Gadolinium element is attained as 1312 °C (1585 K, 2394 °F).

Gadolinium boiling point

The boiling point of Gadolinium element has been identified as 3000 °C (3273 K, 5432 °F).

Gadolinium Van der Waals radius

The Van der Waals radius of Gadolinium is found to be 238 pm.

Gadolinium ionic/covalent radius

The covalent radius of a Gadolinium atom is 196 pm. The radius is noticed to be differing by ±6 pm.

Gadolinium isotopes

Isotopes are atoms of one specific element, which differ by the total number of nucleons from each other. Let us find the isotopes of Gadolinium below.

The number of stable isotopes of a gadolinium atom is 6. 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd and 160Gd are those stable isotopes of the element.

Gadolinium electronic shell

Electronic shells are the spaces in atoms where the electrons are arranged by a central force from the nucleus. Let us find the electronic shell structure within Gadolinium atom.

One Gadolinium atom has 6 electronic shells where the electrons are arranged as 2, 8, 18, 25, 9, and 2.

Gadolinium energy of first ionisation

The first ionisation energy of Gadolinium atom is found as 593.4 kJ/mol, which is low as the atom willingly allows external circumstances to eliminate last electron from the valence shell.

Gadolinium energy of second ionisation

The amount of second ionisation energy is obtained as1170 kJ/mol, which is comparatively higher than first one because it becomes difficult to remove electron from Gd+1 ion.

Gadolinium energy of third ionisation

Third ionisation energy of gadolinium atom is 1990 kJ/mol that signifies the highest ionisation energy level, as it is much more difficult to eliminate electron from Gd2+ ion.

Gadolinium oxidation states

The different oxidation states of Gadolinium element are 0, +1, +2, and +3 and the element is found as a basic oxide.

Gadolinium electron configurations

Electron configuration of Gadolinium element is [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2. The atom tends to adopt same electron configuration of Xenon, as it is the nearest noble gas in the same period of the element. According to Aufbau principle, Xenon must be put in the electron configuration as a notion of idealistic.

Gadolinium CAS number

Gadolinium can be found in Chemical Abstract Service with the identification number of 7440-54-2.

Gadolinium ChemSpider ID

The ChemSpider database has given 22418 registration numbers to Gadolinium element.

Gadolinium allotropic forms

Allotropic forms refer to the different structural format of one specific periodic element. Let us identify the allotropic forms of Gadolinium element below.

Gadolinium has two allotropic forms, which are listed below.

  • Close-packed hexagonal Gadolinium in α-phase
  • Body-centred cubic Gadolinium in β-phase

Gadolinium chemical classification

Gadolinium is a silvery white metal, which is mostly found as oxides in nature. This element shows reactive nature by coming in contact with atmospheric Oxygen. The element is chemically classified by its ductile rare-earth metallic nature.

Gadolinium state at room temperature

Gadolinium element is found in solid state at room temperature.

Is Gadolinium paramagnetic?

Paramagnetic elements are those, which have one or more than one unpaired electron in electronic shell. Let us find if Gadolinium is paramagnetic or not.

Gadolinium shows paramagnetic behaviour but below the temperature 20 °C (68 °F), it behaves as ferromagnetic element.


Gadolinium is one of the periodic elements, which naturally found as oxide. This element has been identified as unique by its nature of imposing both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic structure. By its silvery appearance, the element is quickly identified verbally.

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