11 Extracellular Enzyme Example:Detailed Facts


The “extracellular enzyme “is secreted by the cell to break down large molecules into smaller molecules and do their functions outside of the cell. They have a very important role in many biological processes. It can produce by both prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells.

  • Trypsin
  • Chymotrypsin
  • Pepsin
  • Lipase
  • Collagenases
  • Nucleosidases
  • Elastases
  • Pancreatic amylase
  • Peptidase
  • Sucrase
  • Maltase

Trypsin

This is most common extracellular enzyme example. This enzyme also known as a universal enzyme. It is one kind of digestive enzyme of the family of a serine protease that is widely distributed among all the life forms and is mainly found in the vertebrate pancreas. The most important role of this enzyme is to a breakdown down protein for complete digestion and also do some other biological processes.

Chymotrypsin

This extracellular enzyme is one kind of endopeptidase that can able to break peptide bonds rather than terminal ones in a peptide chain and convert polypeptide into a dipeptide. The chymotrypsinogen was first converted into an active form with the help of the other proteolytic enzyme trypsin.

This is most common extracellular enzyme example.The main important role of this enzyme is to digest protein in which alpha chymotrypsin converts proteases, peptides, and peptones into small peptides and helps to hydrolysis peptide bonds which are connected with the carboxyl group of aromatic amino acids like tyrosine, Phenyl alaninenine, and tryptophan.

Pepsin

This is most common extracellular enzyme example which can works in an acidic environment around 1.5 to 3 pH which helps to digest protein components of food via mainly hydrolyze peptide bond between the aromatic amino acids. The enzyme pepsin is always present in its inactive form because its main important role is to protect cells of secretory glands.

When pepsinogen mix with hydrochloric acid, the pepsinogen activates to become pepsin or an enzyme that can also be activated by the acidic pH of the stomach lumen and wall that is protected by mucus lining. This enzyme can also digest the stomach lining during need. It can also release in its inactive form or zymogen form which is known as pepsinogen.

Lipase

This extracellular enzyme act as a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into fatty acids or glycerol. It is also known as a hydrolytic enzyme that acts on triglycerols to yield glycerol, mono-acylglycerol, and fatty acids.

This is the most common extracellular enzyme example Some other examples of lipase are pancreatic lipase, Intestinal lipase, Lipoprotein, and lingual lipase. This enzyme can able to cleave lipid molecules in glycerol units with 3 fatty acids or sphingosine units with 2 fatty acid chains.

Collagenases

This extracellular enzyme is a part of a larger group of enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases that degrade particular collagen types or native collagen to help for digestion of some damaged cells or tissue.

It can make damaged tissue healthier rapidly and heal them faster. It can also be used in some other biological processes.

Nucleosidases

This extracellular enzyme is also known as a hydrolytic enzyme help to catalyze the nucleotide hydrolysis into nucleoside and phosphate. This is the most common extracellular enzyme example.

This enzyme belongs to the hydrolases family. It can be used for nucleoside analogs synthesis, and also participate in some assimilation pathways.This enzyme generally used in molecular and biological process in which it can help to degrade or remove unuseful structure and contaminants.

Elastases

This extracellular enzyme helps to digest protein and also access some exocrine pancreatic functions that can help to break the food into simple compounds, thus intestine can easily absorb them by the intestinal epithelium.

The main function of this enzyme is to increase the rate of reaction and make a product faster way and in a limited time compared to a product without an enzyme. It also serves as a non-invasive stool biomarker of pancreatic exocrine functions.

Pancreatic amylase

This extracellular enzyme help to catalyze the starch hydrolysis into sugar. It can be secreted by both the salivary gland and pancreas to make alpha-amylase hydrolyze starch into trisaccharides and disaccharides.

The amylase is mostly found in microorganisms and as well as plants that are all required for starch hydrolysis. They also play a very significant role in the process of decomposition. It is considered one of the first extracellular enzyme examples in history.


Peptidase

This extracellular enzyme can able to cleave or hydrolyze peptide bonds in protein and peptide and can also modify the protein that is used for different biological processes and remodeling.

The most common region or source of this enzyme in the digestive system namely, the small intestine and stomach where they produce in gastric glands and pancreas. This enzyme can also be known as a proteolytic enzyme.

extracellular enzyme example
Image from Wikipedia


Sucrase

It is one of the most common digestive enzymes. This extracellular enzyme also known as an invertase enzyme help to catalyze sucrose, and sugarcane hydrolysis into the fructose and glucose as a simple sugar. The enzyme invertase is most commonly found in plants and helps to hydrolyze sucrose via a different mechanism.

This extracellular enzyme is mostly found in the food manufacturing industries, serum, and chocolate industries. The main function of this enzyme is to increase the rate of reaction and make a product faster way and in a limited time compared to a product without an enzyme.

extracellular enzyme example
Image from Wikipedia


Maltase

This extracellular enzyme is a hydrolases group enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of disaccharide maltose into glucose as a simple sugar.

The enzyme is naturally found in the digestive system. It helps in the digestion of sugars and specifically disaccharides and helps to produce a source of energy from food. The most common are found in yeast, bacteria, plants, humans, and other vertebrates. The alpha-glucosidase enzyme is one of the most common extracellular enzyme examples.

Conclusion

The extracellular enzymes are mainly useful for the larger production of food manufacturing, Pharmaceutical industries, and other industrial process due to their highly catalytic activity that make the product faster and valuable.

Bhairavi Rathord

Hello, I am Bhairavi Rathod, I have completed my Master's in Biotechnology and qualified ICAR NET 2021 in Agricultural Biotechnology. My area of specialization is Integrated Biotechnology. I have the experience to teach and write very complex things in a simple way for learners. My LinkedIn profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/bhairavi-rathod-806993130

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