11+ Example of Coenzyme: Detailed Facts


Coenzymes are said to be the compounds that are organic and need many other enzymes for having its work done. Coenzymes are nothing much specific to that of the substances with mostly acting as a carrier to have the reactions done and then generate to be used. Some example of coenzyme is-

  • Thiamine pyrophosphate
  • Flavin mononucleotide
  • Pyridoxal phosphate
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  • Biotin
  • Methylcobalamin
  • Tetrahydrofolate
  • Coenzyme A
  • B vitamins
  • S-adenosyl methionine
  • Non-vitamins
  • Folic acid
  • FAD

Thiamine pyrophosphate

They are called to be TPP or ThPP and are also said to be as thiamine diphosphate with being a derivative of thiamine.

Along with this they are example of coenzyme that is made by the enzyme called as thiamine diphosphokinase. It is called to be a factor that is seen in all of the living beings and in which it tends to catalyze many of the biochemical reactions in the body. It is called to be the active form of example of coenzyme.

It tends to be an example of coenzyme for it functions with many number of enzymes that intercept in the metabolism of carbohydrates thus making them from this method and also the keto analogues from the fatty and amino acids methods are seen by having the making of the energy. This is a good example of coenzyme. They are seen in many animals.

Thiamine diphosphate.png
Image credit-Thiamine pyrophosphateWikipedia

Flavin mononucleotide

It is a biochemical that is made from riboflavin and by the enzymes called as riboflavin kinase and acts as a prosthetic group.

It is an example of coenzyme that has NADH dehydrogenase as well as the cofactor in the biology receptor that is blue light photo. At the time of the catalytic cycle, there is a reversible interconversion of the oxidized and reduce forms of the agent called as NAD and is much useful as seen in one electro transfers being an example of coenzyme.

Flavin nucleotide is an example of coenzyme that issued in the food coloring process for orange and red color as additive and was designed in Europe as E101a. It is much related to food dye and this example of coenzyme is linked to monosodium slat as well. It is seen in many baby foods like milk items sweets or jams and sugar items.

Pyridoxal phosphate

It is anexample of coenzyme which is an active form of the vitamin B and has much of its variety in the world of example of coenzyme.

It is an example of coenzyme for all of the reactions that are transamination and is much certain for deamination, racemization and also for decarboxylation. They also have an aldehyde group and makes a Schiff-base links with the protein and as an example of coenzyme.

There is an active site that also has lysine and this is called the transaldimination. There is a resulting outside Aldine that can lose protein, the amino acid and also the carbon dioxide ling with it acing as a nucleophile in many other pathways being an example of coenzyme. There is also a structure called ketamine made that is later hydrolyzed making a complex form.

Skeletal formula
Image credit-Pyridoxal phosphateWikipedia

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

It is an example of coenzyme that is central to its use. In is seen in all of the living cells and is called as NAD as has 2 nucleotides.

In this method, this is seen in all of the redox actions that carry electrons from one place of reaction o other. It is a perfect example of coenzyme thus is seen in 2 forms in the cells. NAD+ is the oxidizing agent that access electron from rest and then is reduced. It happens along with H+ making NADH used to donate electrons.

This example of coenzyme is also seen in rest pf the cell methods mostly being as a substrate from the enzymes that tend to add or remove the chemical groups to make proteins. They also remove the substrate and adds up enzymes along with getting rid of the chemical groups as vital functions in example of coenzyme and also target the discovery of many.

Biotin

It is of the B vitamins that is said to be B7 and is seen in the food like milk, bananas and eggs helping them grow. It is involved in a wide range of metabolic processes, both in humans and in other organisms

The lack of this example of coenzyme can lead to hair thinning and lead to much rash on the face. It is vital of any enzyme in the body and breaks the substances like the carbs, fats and rest. There is no test yet to get the deficient of this example of coenzyme apart from witnessing the symptoms.

Biotin as example of coenzyme biotin lacking. It is much common for the hair loss, and many other conditions but no scientific proof that support the use. There are also many supplements for this example of coenzyme which shall or might interfere with the test in lab. It is also a water soluble example of coenzyme coming from the Greek work called biotos meaning life.

Skeletal formula of biotin
Image credit-BiotinWikipedia

Methylcobalamin

It is commonly called to be as MeCbl and is an activated form if the vitamin B12 which has been uses in many treatments. Methylcobalamin injections, regardless of the concentrations and inactive ingredients.

This as example of coenzyme is sued to get rid of the lack of Vitamin B. Vitamin B is vital for the body mostly for the nerves and the brain and this as example of coenzyme is also much vital for making of the red blood cells. It is also used in people that has anemia, other condition and diabetes.

This as example of coenzyme is a cobalamin and different from the cyanobalamin in the cyano group and is thus replaced with the ethyl group. It is much of the as example of coenzyme that is are and has metal along with alkali bonds. It is same n physiology to that of vitamin B and this as example of coenzyme is red crystal in color.

Tetrahydrofolate

It is a derivate of the folic acid and is a commonly termed compound to be THFA and is good as example of coenzyme. Tetrahydrofolate is the main active metabolite of dietary folate and vital as a coenzyme in reactions.

It is made from the dihydrogolic acid by the reduction of dihydrofolate. The reaction is much inhibited by the methotrexate. This as example of coenzyme along with the help of serine hydroxymethyltransferase is converted to 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate. There are many bacteria that are seen to use the synthetize.

Thus this as example of coenzyme makes it a good target center for the sulfonamide that shall compete with the PABA precursor. This is said to be a super example of coenzyme and also a cofactor for certain reactions mostly for the synthesis of the nucleic and amino acids. It also acts as a carrier molecule apart form being a good as example of coenzyme to make a certain molecule that is of no function to humans yet is there.

Read more about Is Endocytosis Hypertonic?

Coenzyme A

This example of coenzyme is noted for its use in the oxidation and synthesis of the fatty acids and then oxidation of pyruvate in TCA. Enzyme nomenclature abbreviations in parentheses represent mammalian, eukaryotic, and prokaryotic enzymes. 

All of the genomes that have been sequenced for the enzyme encoding trait uses this example of coenzyme as substrate and about almost 4% of the enzymes in the cell use it as well again as a substrate. It is also seen in humans but the biosynthesis of this example of coenzyme needs cysteine and adenosine triphosphate.

This example of coenzyme is much volatile and also serves much of the metabolic functions in both of the carbolic and anabolic paths. It is also used in the regulation of post translation and also regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and carboxylase to get itself maintained and then support the partition of the degradation and this example of coenzyme.

example of coenzyme
Image credit-Coenzyme AWikipedia

B vitamins

There are mostly 8 in types along with being much vital to the body and also being water soluble vitamins along with Vitamin C. Though these vitamins share similar names, they are chemically compounds that are seen in foods.

This example of coenzyme has 8 of its complex being B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12. They are thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothetic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid and cobalamin respectively. They are termed to be example of coenzyme with each being much vital for the body by being useful in all way.

This example of coenzyme helps in having good health and also good being. It helps in getting the body to ale building blocks with this example of coenzyme having its direct impact on the energy level of how the brain tends to work and the cell methods. It shall help in preventing and support to good cell, growing RBC, energy level, eyesight. Appetite, muscle tone, nerve function.

S-adenosyl methionine

This example of coenzyme is called for its names in the commercial area like SAM-e, SAMe or also AdoMet and is linked with diet.

It is much involved in the methyl groups that helps in transfer of the aminopropylation and transsulfuration. It is an anabolic reaction that at least place in the whole body. There are more than about 40 methyl that are transferred from SAM known and also many other substrates are done so with this example of coenzyme.

This example of coenzyme is also seen in the bacteria and is bound by the roboswitch SAM that regulated the genes in the methionine or the biosynthesis of the cysteine. This example of coenzyme is vital for regulator of the tRna, DNA, immune response and also for methylation. This example of coenzyme also gels in breaking of bad materials in the body with leaving no effects.

S-adenosyl methionine.png
Image credit-S-Adenosyl methionineWikipedia

Non-vitamins

Non-vitamin coenzymes typically aid in chemical transfer for enzymes. They ensure physiological functions, like blood clotting and metabolism, occur in an organism.

Adenosine triphosphate or ATP is an example of coenzyme that is an essential non-vitamin coenzyme. In fact, it is the most widely distributed coenzyme in the human body. It transports substances and supplies energy needed for necessary chemical reactions and muscle contraction.

To do this, ATP carries both a phosphate and energy to various locations within a cell. When the phosphate is removed, the energy is also released. This process is result of the electron transport chain. Without the coenzyme ATP, there would be little energy available at the cellular level and normal life functions could not occur. The vitamin-derived coenzyme NADH begins the process by delivering electrons.

Folic acid

Folate is the natural form of vitamin B9, water-soluble and naturally found in many foods. It is also added to foods and sold as a supplement in the form of folic acid; this form is actually better absorbed than that from food sources of 85%.

The Recommended Dietary Allowance for folate is listed as micrograms (mcg) of dietary folate equivalents (DFE). Men and women ages 19 years and older should aim for 400 mcg DFE. Pregnant and lactating women require 600 mcg DFE and 500 mcg DFE. This example of coenzyme has the chemical formula of C19H19N7O6. When the baby is developing early during pregnancy, folic acid helps form the neural tube.

“Folate” is an example of coenzyme for vitamin B9 refers to the many forms of folic acid and its related compounds, including tetrahydrofolic acid called the active form, methyltetrahydrofolate  which is the primary form found in blood and pteroylglutamic acid. Historic names included L. ⁠casei factor, vitamin Bc and vitamin M. Folate is especially important during periods of frequent cell division and growth.

Skeletal formula
Image credit-Folic acidWikipedia

FAD

Some proteins, however, generate and maintain a super oxidized form of the flavin cofactor, the flavin-N(5)-oxide. This is the similar example of coenzyme.

FAD can exist in four redox states, which are the flavin-N(5)-oxide, quinone, semiquinone, and hydroquinone. FAD is converted between these states by accepting or donating electrons. FAD, in its fully oxidized form, or quinone form, accepts two electrons and two protons to become FADH2.

Flavoproteins were first discovered in 1879 by separating components of cow’s milk. They were initially called lactochrome due to their milky origin and yellow pigment. It took 50 years for the scientific community to make any substantial progress in identifying the molecules responsible for the yellow pigment. Flavin adenine dinucleotide consists of two portions: the adenine nucleotide and the flavin mononucleotide bridged together through their phosphate groups.

Stereo, Kekulé, skeletal formula of FAD
Image credit-FADWikipedia

Function of example of coenzyme

Minerals and the vitamins do play a good part in the catabolic and anabolic pathways that lead to getting the biomolecules synthesized.

This helps in having the lipids, the proteins, carbs, the co-factors and also the nucleic acids synthesized. Some of the function for example of coenzyme lie with it being a vitamin or minerals. Some example of coenzyme function is-

Vitamins as coenzyme

The metabolite form of vitamin A, the retinoic acid is an example of coenzyme and functions as the regulator of genes with being much vital.

Vitamin A as an example of coenzyme is vital for getting the cells grow in basic way. Vitamin K is also an example of coenzyme for the ones that are motile like that of the CO2 groups. There is also a group of carboxylic that is released having them bind to the calcium with this step being vital for the making of osteicalcin which is needed for bone building.

 It is also needed for making of the prothrombin that plays vital role in getting the blood coagulated. These are some of the example of coenzyme that are vitamins acting to be an enzyme or coenzyme and getting in to serve several functions as per its needed and availability. Some of the example of coenzyme might also be acting as cofactors as well or both.

Minerals as a function of example of coenzyme

Minerals can be of much use in the world of biology with some being catalyst and some being cofactors. Enzyme nomenclature abbreviations in parentheses represent mammalian, other eukaryotic, and prokaryotic enzymes respectively. 

The time when the minerals tend to act as example of coenzyme they do not mess with the substrate or its enzyme. They tend to accelerate the reaction of biochemical process between the substrate and the enzyme. When example of coenzyme act as mineral they become a portion of the structure or substrate.

This so formed structure of example of coenzyme is vital for the processing of all the biochemical reaction. Minerals that actually act as example of coenzyme or cofactors are selenium, molybdenum, manganese and magnesium. Some of them are iodine, calcium cobalt that acts as example of coenzyme being a non-enzymatic one with rets being iron and zinc acting as both.

Molybdenum crystaline fragment and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Image credit-MolybdenumWikipedia

Conclusion

Coenzymes are organic compounds required by many enzymes for catalytic activity. This very article has 13 example of coenzyme staying for few of the vitamin B to that of the non-vitamins and also the one that is exceptionally vital for the body and also not.

ANKITA CHATTOPADHYAY

I am Ankita Chattopadhyay from Kharagpur. I have completed my BTech in Biotechnology from Amity University Kolkata. I am a Subject Matter Expert in Biotechnology and also a web content writer (freelancer). I have been keen in writing articles and also interested in Literature with having my writing published in a Biotech website and a book respectively. Along with these, I am also a Hodophile, a Cinephile and a foodie.

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