Enzymes In Cytoplasm: 7 Facts You Should Know


Enzymes serve as biological catalysts by quickening chemical reactions. There are thousands of enzymes found in cell. Let us see in details about enzymes in cytoplasm.

The cytoplasm of every living cell contains enzymes, which are physiologically active. These are crucial for cellular activity and general health since they catalyse and control every metabolic reaction that take place in human body.

An average human cell contains 1300 kinds of enzymes. Each of our body’s 100 trillion cells, each organ, and each tissue plays a role in the reaction of enzymes and it is the energy factor that drives them.

How does cytoplasm contain enzymes?

Cytoplasm is an essential cellular component. It carries several organelles and cellular inclusion. Let us see how it contain enzymes.

Cytoplasm contain organelles which synthesis protein called enzyme. They are created in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently move to the cytoplasm. These proteins are put in vesicles and are delivered to the Golgi apparatus.

The Golgi then completes the process of producing the digesting enzymes by pinching off a tiny, incredibly specialised vesicle. A lysosome is contained within the vesicle.

Where does cytoplasm contain enzymes?

Cytoplasm houses enzymes for many important metabolic pathways, including fatty acid production and glycolysis. Let us see where in particular cytoplasm contain enzymes.

Cytoplasm contain enzymes unbound or bound to specific organelles, such as ribosomes. Enzymes are not distributed haphazardly throughout cytoplasm. Instead, they are positioned in spatial arrangements that support organised activity, presumably in slack connections with intracellular membranes.

Examples of enzymes found in cytoplasm

Enzymes transport the energy needed by each chemical action and reaction within the cell. Let us see some examples of cytoplasmic enzymes.

Some examples of enzymes found in cytoplasm are given below-

  • Enzymes needed for glycolysis
  • Enzymes needed for Gluconeogenesis
  • Enzymes needed for Glycogen Metabolism
  • Enzymes needed for urea cycle
  • Enzymes needed for Amino Acid Metabolism
  • Miscellaneous Enzymes

Enzymes needed for glycolysis:

The breakdown of one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules occur during the anaerobic process known as glycolysis.

Enzymes for glycolysis are given below –

  • Hexokinase
  • Phosphoglucose Isomerase
  • Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
  • Aldolase
  • Isomerase
  • Triosephosphate dehydrogenase
  • Phosphoglycerokinase
  • Mutase
  • Enolase
  • Pyruvate kinase

Enzymes needed for Gluconeogenesis:

The process through which glucose is produced from non-carbohydrate source is known as glucoseneogenesis.

List of enzymes for gluconeogenesis is given below –

  • Malate dehydrogenase (cytoplasmic)
  • PEP carboxykinase
  • Fructose 1,6- bisphosphatase
  • Glucose 6-phosphatase

Enzymes needed for Glycogen Metabolism:

The majority of the glycogen synthesis and degradation enzymes are found in the cytoplasm of living cells.

List of enzymes for glycogen metabolism is given below

  • UDP-glucose phosphorylase
  • Glycogen synthase
  • Glycogenin
  • Branching enzymes
  • Glycogen phosphorylase
  • Debranching enzyme

Enzymes needed for urea cycle:

The urea cycle is a metabolic mechanism that turns two molecules of ammonia and one molecule of carbon dioxide into one molecule of urea.

List of enzymes for urea cycle is given below

  • Arginosuccinate Synthetase
  • Arginosuccinase
  • Arginase

Miscellaneous Enzymes:

  • ATPase
  • Carbonic anhydrase
  • Catalase

Functions of enzymes found in cytoplasm

In the cytoplasm or in organelles within the cell, enzymes can catalyse chemical processes. Let us understand the function of enzymes in cytoplasm.

  1. Cellular health and function depends on the proper action of enzymes.
  2. Hasten cellular chemical processes.
  3. Serve to detoxify the body.
  4. Enzymes help in vision, hearing, thinking, touch, movement and taste
  5. Existence of cellular life would be impossible without these enzymes.

Every organ, every tissue, and each of our body’s 100 trillion cells depend on how cytoplsmic enzymes react and how much energy they contain.

Does cytoplasm synthesize enzymes?

The fluid found inside the cell membrane is called cytoplasm. Cytoplasm of the cell contains all of the cell’s organelles. Let us see if cytoplasm synthesizes enzymes.

Cytoplasm synthesize enzymes as it contains ribosomes that produce essential proteins. On the other hand, the rough endoplasmic reticulum houses ribosomes that produce secretory proteins. The ribosomes are responsible for the majority of protein molecules that make up enzymes.

Enzymes From Wikipedia

The translation unit for amino acid and protein synthesis is held in the cytoplasm of the cell by the ribosomes during translation.

Are digestive enzymes found in cytoplasm?

Digestive enzymes help the body absorb polymeric macromolecules by disassembling them into smaller components. Let us see if digestive enzymes are found in cytoplasm.

Digestive enzymes are found in some cytoplasmic organelles, rather than cytoplsmic fluid. According to Ohio State University, ribosomes connected to the endoplasmic reticulum are in charge of creating enzymes such as digestive enzymes.

The mRNA transcripts leave the nucleus and move into the cytoplasm, where rough endoplasmic reticulum translates them, and this is how the enzymes are created.

Conclusion:

In the human body, enzymes aid in accelerating chemical reactions. Among countless other functions, they are crucial for breathing, food digestion, and the health of the muscles and nerves. Numerous enzymes can be found inside the cytoplasm of each cell of the human body. Each cell’s internal chemical operations can be aided by enzymes.

Sadiqua Noor

Hi...I am Sadiqua Noor, done Postgraduation in Biotechnology, my area of interest is molecular biology and genetics, apart from these I have a keen interest in scientific article writing in simpler words so that the people from non-science backgrounds can also understand the beauty and gifts of science. I have 5 years of experience as a tutor. Let's connect through LinkedIn-https://www.linkedin.com/in/sadiqua-noor-705593225

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