In this article, we will discuss how the electrostatic force and charge of the particle between which the electrostatic force acts are dependent on each other.
The electrostatic force is the force of attraction and repulsion between the two unlike and like charges respectively and is directly dependent on the product of the charged particles.
Is electric force directly proportional to charge?
The electric force directly depends on the product of the two charges and on the distance separating the both.
If q1 and q2 both are like charged particles, then the electrostatic force is positive and repulsive; and if both consist of different charges, that is, if one is positive and the other is negative then the electrostatic force will be negative and attractive.
The electric force is related to the charge of the particle by the formula,
F=1/ 4πɛ (q1q2/r2)
Where 1/ 4πɛ=9*109Nm2/C2
q1 and q2 are two charged particles, and
d is a distance between the two charges
If the product of the charges is negative then electrostatic force is negative and the force between the two charges is attraction.
And if the product is positive then the force between the two charges is the repulsive force and the force is positive.
Analogous to the product of charges, the electrostatic force also depends upon the distance allying the two charged particles inversely. If the gap between the two like charges increases then the effect of the electrostatic force between the two decreases. If the distance of separation of two unlike charges increases then the force of attraction also increases along with the distance.
Problem 1: Consider two charged particles Q1, Q2, Q3,and Q4 carrying a charge of -1C, 3C, -2C, and 1C respectively. Calculate the electrostatic force on particle Q1.
Solution: The electrostatic force on a particle Q1 due to charge Q2 is
F1=1/ 4πɛ (q1q2/r2)
The electrostatic force on a particle Q1 due to charge Q3 is
F2=1/ 4πɛ (q1q2/r2)
=9*109 (-1C)* (-2C)(2.8)2
The electrostatic force on a particle Q1 due to charge Q4 is
F2=1/ 4πɛ (q1q2/r2)
=9*109 (-1C)* (-2C)(2)2
Hence, the net force acting on the charge Q1 is
Thus, we can see that if the product of the two charges is positive then the electrostatic force will be positive, otherwise, it is negative that is the attractive force.
Electrostatic Force on Charge in Electric Field
The electrostatic force is a force experienced between the charged particles separated by some distance.
The force imposed by one charged particle on the other charge carrier is directly proportional to the electric field produced by itself and the total charge of the particle on which the force is exerted.
If the force due to two charge carriers is given by the relation F=1/ 4πɛ (q1q2/r2), then the electric field due to charge q1 is E1=1/ 4πɛ (q1/r12) and the electric field due to charge q2 is E2=1/ 4πɛ (q2/r22)
Hence, the electrostatic force experienced on charge q1 due to charge q2 is F=q1E1, and the electrostatic force experienced on charge q2 due to charge q1 is F=q2E2.
Now we can say that E=F/q
The electric field is the ratio of the electrostatic force and the charge of the carrier. The electrostatic force persists within the range of the electric field produced by the charged particle.
Read more on Electrostatics.
Problem 2: What is the electric field due to a particle of charge +3C at a distance of 3cm? How much force will it exert on the charge of +1C separated by a distance of 5cm?
The electric field due to charge +3C at a distance 3cm is
E1=1/ 4πɛ (q1/r12)
The electrostatic force between the two particles is
F=1/ 4πɛ (q1q2/r2)
Read more on Is electrostatic force conservative: Exhaustive insights.
How Electrostatic Force Acts on Charges?
The charged particles produce their own electric field on mobility and are confined to the charge of the particle and the gap of separation from other charges.
The negative charge carrier will exert an attractive force on the positively charged particle and the repulsive force on the negatively charged particle.
The charge carrier will form an electric field within which this force of attraction or repulsion will be influenced. The electrostatic force between the like charges is always repulsive force because they tend to move away from each other as the charge carriers of the two is the same and they spin in the opposite direction to apart.
If the two particles consist of unlike charges, then they will show the force of attraction towards each other as the negative charge wants to binds with the positive charge to get neutral.
Read more on Net Electrostatic Force: How to Find, Problems and FAQs.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the electrostatic force between the proton and electron separated by a distance of 1fm?
We have, d=1fm=10-15m
The charge of proton q1=1.6*10-19
The charge of electron q1=-1.6*10-19
Hence, the electrostatic force between the two charge particles is
E=1/ 4πɛ (q1q2/r2)
=9*109* 1.6*10-19 * 1.6 * 10-19/ (10-15)2
The electrostatic force between the electron and proton is 230.4N.
How electrostatic force is different from gravitational force?
The electrostatic force is given as F=K.q1q2/r2 whereK=9*109Nm2/C2 and the gravitational force is given by the relation FG=G m1m2/r2 where G=6.67*10-11 Nm2Kg2.
The force between the two charges is called the electrostatic force which can b attractive or repulsive, whereas the force of gravity between the two objects having masses is called the gravitational force and is always attractive force.
How does the electric field depend upon the electrostatic force?
Even a single charged particle can generate its own electric field range within which it exerts the electrostatic force on the other charged particles.
The electrostatic forces reacting between the particles cause the particles to either repel away from each other or attract, hence the electric field is directly proportional to the electrostatic force.
What does the negative electrostatic force signify?
The negative electrostatic force implies the force of attraction between the two charged particles.
It says that the product of the two charged particles is negative, that is one of the charges is positive and another one is negatively charged.
How many types of electrostatic forces are there?
Depending upon the majority of charge carriers the electrostatic force is classified into an attractive force and a repulsive force.
These forces completely rely upon the charge that the particle carries. The negative charge will show the force of attraction towards the positive charge particle and the force of repulsion towards the negatively charged particle.