Dynamic Equilibrium in Solution: 9 Facts You Should Know


In the present article, we are going to focus on the dynamic equilibrium in solution. At the dynamic equilibrium point, we can see the same rate of both forward and backward reactions.

The dynamic equilibrium is, in general, observed to be seen only in closed systems. i.e., the expenditure of the number of reactants in the reaction is compromised by the reverse reaction producing the same without any loss. In other words, the interconversion between the reactants and the products takes place at a similar rate.

Dynamic-equilibrium-in-solution

At a point when the return of particles towards the surface matches the rate of leaving the same particles from the surface. This point is itself considered to be the establishment of the dynamic equilibrium. When saturation is achieved, particles tend to move back towards the surface.

For example, we know that when salt is put in water, it will dissolve it is because of the entering of particles (salt) into the solution (water) after leaving the surface. An equilibrium constant may be found to be present, which represents the solubility product characterizing the solubility equilibrium. The solubility product is basically temperature-dependent in nature.

dynamic equilibrium in solution
Image credits: Pixabay free images

What is meant by solution equilibrium?

A type of dynamic equilibrium in solution is recognized as the solution equilibrium when there exists a chemical equilibrium between the solid-state and the solution form of the same compound. Through dissociation or a chemical reaction, the solid form of the substance starts to dissolve into any constituent of the solution.

An equilibrium constant may be found to be present, which represents the solubility product characterizing the solubility equilibrium. The solubility product is basically temperature-dependent in nature.

Image credits: Pixabay free images

What is dynamic equilibrium solubility?

The migration of individual molecules from the solid state to the solution and vice-versa take place in the phase, or the rate of dissolution, as well as the precipitation, is evidently the same or equal. The solute concentration that is found to be present in the solution that has achieved saturation is nothing but solubility.

When saturation is achieved, particles tend to move back towards the surface, matching the rate of leaving particles from the same surface. The dynamic equilibrium in solutions is always characterized by an equilibrium constant which is, in general, a dimensionless quantity.

How can solutions demonstrate dynamic equilibrium?

In the case of dynamic equilibrium in solution, as we all know, the same rate of both forward and backward reactions is possibly a situation, and concentrations corresponding to both reactants as well as the products are balanced in phase.

The dynamic word represents that both the reactions as mentioned above are in a run or are continuous. This is why we all witness an unchanged system.

We know that when salt is put in water, it will dissolve it is because of the entering of particles (salt) into the solution (water) after leaving the surface. After a certain point, the further added salt will not get dissolved as before. This is due to the establishment of saturation.   

In which type of solution does an equilibrium always exist?

It is experimentally observed that we can witness the dynamic equilibrium in solution that have reached saturation. In such saturated solutions, there occurs an equilibrium between the dissolved solute and the undissolved species. In another type of solution termed dilute solution, there is no existence of any undissolved species.

Because of this, there is no equilibrium also. Supersaturated solution refers to a solution that is found to have dissolved more solute than a saturated one; thus, it is also far away from the equilibrium. In a few cases, such solutions might tend toward equilibrium when precipitation of the already dissolved material.

How does dynamic equilibrium affect solubility?

Solubility, in simple words, is nothing but the maximum limit that a solute is capable of getting dissolved in the given solvent when the equilibrium point is reached. In this particular instance, we have the particles leaving the surface at the same rate, even coming back to the surface, establishing a state of dynamic equilibrium in solution.

This state nowhere affects the solubility of a substance. An equilibrium constant may be found to be present, which represents the solubility product characterizing the solubility equilibrium. The solubility product is basically temperature-dependent in nature.

Is an unsaturated solution at equilibrium?

Concerning the dissolved substance, when we are unable to reach equilibrium, the state simply represents an unsaturated solution. The unsaturated solution is usually characterized by a larger quantity of dissolved substance than the saturated solution. We can also say that, in an unsaturated solution, the solute concentration is lower in comparison with its solubility.

We can see both the process of dissolution as well as the crystallization simultaneously, both of them acting as the opposite processes for each other.An unsaturated solution shows a greater response to dissolution in comparison to crystallization.

Image credits: Pixabay free images

Why is there no solution equilibrium in an unsaturated solution?

A chemical solution is referred to as an unsaturated solution when the concentration of the solute contained by it is found to be lower with respect to the characteristic equilibrium solubility of the solution. We can see both the process of dissolution as well as the crystallization simultaneously, both of them acting as the opposite processes for each other.

Dissolution is nothing but the process describing the tendency of a solute to dissolve into the solvent, and crystallization is just the opposite of it, i.e., the process of deposition of solute. An unsaturated solution shows a greater response to dissolution in comparison to crystallization.

Why is solubility equilibrium important?

The solubility equilibrium is considered to be one of the important physical properties that are associated with the system when it comes to the solubility of additive in a polymer, as it is useful in determining the quantity of additive that is present in the polymer. The general formation of any solid is carried on by its basic particles.

Such particles are provided by the dissolution of the solid in water. A physical process that involves majorly the affinity associated with the molecules. In general, a good affinity is characterized by similar chemical composition, favoring the solubility also.

How is solubility related to the equilibrium between the solvent and the solute?

Solubility, in simple words, is nothing but the maximum limit that a solute is capable of getting dissolved in the given solvent when the equilibrium point is reached. In this particular instance, we have the particles leaving the surface at the same rate, even coming back to the surface, establishing a state of dynamic equilibrium in solution. This state nowhere affects the solubility of a substance.

The solubility equilibrium is considered to be one of the important physical properties that are associated with the system when it comes to the solubility of additive in a polymer, as it is useful in determining the quantity of additive that is present in the polymer. The general formation of any solid is carried on by its basic particles. Such particles are provided by the dissolution of the solid in water.

Image credits: Pixabay free images

What do you mean by physical equilibrium?

In a system, if we are unable to establish any recognizable change associated with its physical state, then it is said to be present in physical equilibrium. There are certain criteria regarding the system so that the physical equilibrium can be achieved in it.

i.e., the system is supposed to be a closed system as the time changes, and there should not occur any variation in the measurable quantities. In general, the physical equilibrium is found to be present only at the saturation point. A physical process that involves majorly the affinity associated with the molecules. In general, a good affinity is characterized by similar chemical composition, favouring the solubility also.

What does a static equilibrium mean?

In the case of static equilibrium in solutions, as we all know, the same rate of both forward and backward reactions is not possible a situation, and concentrations corresponding to both reactants as well as the products are varied. The ‘static’ word represents that there will be no chemical reaction as such taking place during the static equilibrium.

Mention the differences between the dynamic equilibrium in solution and physical equilibrium.

Dynamic equilibriumStatic equilibrium
The same rate of both forward and backward reactions is possibly a situationThe same rate of both forward and backward reactions is not possible in a situation
concentrations corresponding to both reactants as well as the products are balanced in phaseConcentrations corresponding to both reactants as well as the products are varied
The dynamic word represents that both the reactions as mentioned above are in a run or are continuousThe ‘static’ word represents that there will be no chemical reaction as such taking place during the static equilibrium.  
The system is supposed to be a closed system.The system is supposed to be an open system.

What is going on in a system that is said to be in dynamic equilibrium?

A minute variation that goes on to give a total change in the system is usually witnessed in the system in which the dynamic equilibrium has been established. In several biological systems, there is an occurrence of dynamic equilibrium. For example, water constitutes a cell.

What is the reference point to tell that a system has reached the dynamic equilibrium?

If you can recognize any changes associated with the amounts of reactants as well as the products, then it is not in dynamic equilibrium. Even if you are unable to recognize changes with your naked eyes, it does not put the state of the system at a dynamic equilibrium as the changes might be minute to be seen by our naked eye.

Why do we refer to equilibrium equations as dynamic equations?

We, in general, refer to the equilibrium equations as the dynamic equations because the same rate of both forward and backward reactions is possibly a situation, and concentrations corresponding to both reactants as well as the products are balanced in phase.

The dynamic word represents that both the reactions mentioned above are in a run or are continuous. A steady-state system is also characterized by dynamic equilibrium.

Is it possible for temperature, pressure, or concentration to affect the system’s equilibrium?

As we all know, temperature pressure and concentration are the parameters capable of affecting the chemical reaction taking place in the system; thus, in turn, they all end up influencing the equilibrium of the system as the so-called dynamic equilibrium is achieved in accordance with the chemical reaction that is occurring.

Try to write a short note on dynamic equilibrium in solution.

At a point when the return of particles towards the surface matches the rate of leaving the same particles from the surface. This point is itself considered to be the establishment of the dynamic equilibrium. When saturation is achieved, particles tend to move back towards the surface.

The same rate of both forward and backward reactions is possibly a situation associated with the dynamic equilibrium in solution.

Conclusion

In the case of dynamic equilibrium in solutions, as we all know, the same rate of both forward and backward reactions is possibly a situation, and concentrations corresponding to both reactants as well as the products are balanced in phase. The dynamic word represents that both the reactions as mentioned above are in a run or are continuous. This is why we all witness an unchanged system.

Harshitha H N

Hi.....I am Harshitha H N. I have completed my master's in Physics from the University of Mysore with a specialization in Nuclear physics. I am well versed in the field of Latex, GAMESS software, and AVAGADRO software. I enjoy exploring new things in my free time. My article always aims to develop and bring some value to the table with relevant topics. Let’s connect through LinkedIn- https://www.linkedin.com/in/harshitha-h-n-368418249

Recent Posts