Dynamic Equilibrium In Molecules: 5 Facts You Should Know


To understand dynamic equilibrium in molecules first, we have to know the meaning of dynamic equilibrium meaning. The equilibrium state of any substance is a condition of the system at which it attains its most stable position, and the dynamic equilibrium refers to the form the system reaches during the reversible reactions.

If we consider the case of chemical reactions, the number of molecules acting as reactants will equal the number of molecules on the product side; both reactants and products will have an equal number of molecules and will not vary. This state is referred to be in dynamic equilibrium. Let us study it in detail about it.

What is dynamic equilibrium in molecules?

Dynamic equilibrium is one of the conditions of the system in which the molecules of the substance attain the equilibrium state, all the activities of reactant molecules and product molecules will be the same. It will not vary until it is in an equilibrium state.

Let’s take an example of a chemical reaction. The dynamic equilibrium occurs during the reversible reaction between products and reactants, i.e., the ratio of molecules, both reactants, and products are the same and will not vary with time.

How do molecules reach dynamic equilibrium?

The molecules reach dynamic equilibrium when they are in a reversible reaction. In this type of reaction, the substance attains dynamic equilibrium when the molecules of both reactant and products transit at the same speed and rate.

The molecules are active participants in a reversible reaction, considering there is a continuous transition of reactant molecules and product molecules at the same rate; at this point, the dynamic equilibrium occurs, which demands that there should be no further change in the concentration rate of the substance.

When are the molecules in dynamic equilibrium?

The molecules of reactants and products will attain dynamic equilibrium when they are transiting in a reversible reaction. Here the rate at which the molecules in the forwarding reaction move is equal to the rate at which the reverse reaction transit.

The molecules will attain a steady-state in dynamic equilibrium and can describe that they will move at equal rates during the reaction with no change and constant value.

What happens to molecules in dynamic equilibrium?

The molecules will attain a steady-state, and there will be no further change in the form of molecules of both reactants and products of the system since the dynamic equilibrium occurs through a reversible reaction.

The total change in the concentration of the system during the reversible reaction as it reaches dynamic equilibrium will be zero.

Example of dynamic equilibrium in molecules

We can observe various examples of dynamic equilibrium around us; some of the important ones are noted below,

  • Raindrop
  • Bathtub filled with water
  • Sweating
  • Carrying load 
  • Clock

Raindrop

When it’s pouring outside, we observe millions of rain drops reaching the earth’s surface. All these raindrops fall on the planet at the same speed or velocity; in this condition, we can see that the molecules of the raindrops are in dynamic equilibrium.

dynamic equilibrium in molecules
Image credit: Pixabay free images

Bathtub filled with water

When you fill the bathtub with water till a certain point and later remove the plug so that water can move out, keep the tap open and allow the same amount of water to fill in. Then here, we can observe the existence of dynamic equilibrium in molecules.

The water from a tap that keeps adding to the tub will be  same as the water going out through the plug.

dynamic equilibrium in molecules
Image credit: Pixabay free images

Sweating

We can see the attainment of dynamic equilibrium in molecules, even in living species, through sweating. We can see that the body will maintain a constant temperature until there is a change in surroundings; when the body temperature increases, it automatically sweats to cool down the body by removing the heat molecules through the skin.

Vice versa happens when the body shivers from cold, and the calories in the body help maintain the temperature by producing heat. In both cases, the body attains equilibrium.

dynamic equilibrium in molecules
Image credit: Pixabay free images

Carrying load 

An individual carries a heavy load in one hand and leans towards the other side to maintain the balance of the load and this act makes him attain dynamic equilibrium.

Clock

In general, the clock has three needles, and we can observe that they are two needles for a minute and one hand for the second, the needle that shows seconds passes with uniform angular velocity.

It makes the torque and acceleration zero; this process makes it in dynamic equilibrium.

dynamic equilibrium in molecules
Image credit: Pixabay free images

These are some of the essential dynamic equilibriums seen in molecules.

When can we say that the body is in dynamic equilibrium?

We can say that an object or a body is in dynamic equilibrium when the body travels with the same speed or velocity throughout its motion.

For example, if an object moves with a uniform speed in a linear motion throughout its movement, we can say that the body is in dynamic equilibrium.

What happens to molecules during dynamic equilibrium?

During the reversible reaction, the dynamic equilibrium takes place. In this condition, the molecules that are converting themselves into products will equal the number of molecules transforming themselves into reactants. No changes occur in the molecules during this state of the system.

The total change in the system in the dynamic equilibrium state will remain the same during the reversible reaction that takes place in the substance.

What is an example of dynamic equilibrium in everyday life?

There are various examples of dynamic equilibrium in routine life. Some of the essential criteria are listed below,

  • Water is heated in a vessel to boil the egg.
  • Raindrops fall on the earth’s surface at the same speed.
  • Any object moving with the same velocity on a path

We can observe many more examples in our surroundings where the system attains dynamic equilibrium.

What changes occur in molecules in dynamic equilibrium?

When molecules are in dynamic equilibrium, no changes will be observed because the molecules of both reactants and products transit at the same speed and rate when they are reversible.

The molecules are active participants in a reversible reaction, considering there is a continuous transition of reactant molecules and product molecules at the same rate; at this point, the dynamic equilibrium occurs, which demands that there should be no further change in the concentration.

What do you mean by molecular dynamic equilibrium?

Molecular dynamic equilibrium is defined as the state of the system; at this phase, the reversible reaction occurs in the system that helps maintain the ratio of both reactant and product molecules.

Even though there is no change in ratio, we can observe that the movement of particles gets converted from reactants to products and vice versa.

What are the essential factors that are necessary for dynamic equilibrium?

The essential factors that are necessary for an object in dynamic equilibrium are as follows,

  • The pressure exerted on the molecules of reactants and products will not vary with time.
  • The rate at which the forward and reverse reaction occurs in the dynamic equilibrium will be the same.
  • The reaction quotient of the system will be the same as the dynamic equilibrium constant.

How does dynamic equilibrium establish?

Dynamic equilibrium occurs in a system when a reversible reaction occurs, i.e., the molecules of the products get converted into molecules of reactants at the same rate and in the same way the concentration of the system does not vary.

For example, when a spoon of salt is put into the beaker in the beaker, the salt particles dissolve and merge with the water, but the concentration does not vary due to dynamic equilibrium.

Facts on dynamic equilibrium

The different facts on dynamic equilibrium are listed below,

  • If any object moves with a uniform speed in a linear motion throughout its movement, then we can say that the body is in dynamic equilibrium. The total value of force and acceleration acting on this object will be zero.
  • If the object possesses a change in acceleration during its movement, then it is not considered to be in dynamic equilibrium.
  • If the object passes on a circular path with varying angular velocity, then the object is not in dynamic equilibrium.
  • But if it is along the circle moving with the uniform speed at that time, it can be referred to be in dynamic equilibrium.
  • If a body is moving with varying velocities, it cannot attain dynamic equilibrium since it cannot proceed with uniform speed.
  • These are some of the essential conditions under which the molecules of the system cannot attain the dynamic equilibrium state.

Summary

Therefore, we understood that we could realize dynamic equilibrium in molecules in detail by first knowing the concept of dynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium position of any substance is a condition of the system at which it attains its most stable status, and the dynamic equilibrium refers to the state the system reaches during the reversible reactions.

Raghavi Acharya

I am Raghavi Acharya, I have completed my post-graduation in physics with a specialization in the field of condensed matter physics. Having a very good understanding in Latex, gnu-plot and octave. I have always considered Physics to be a captivating area of study and I enjoy exploring the various fields of this subject. In my free time, I engage myself in digital art. My articles are aimed towards delivering the concepts of physics in a very simplified manner to the readers. Let’s connect through - LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/raghavi-c-s-260a801b1 EMAIL ID: raghavics6@gmail.com

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