There are a number of conditions favorable for the dynamic condition and a slight perturbation in a system can affect the dynamic equilibrium state too.
The dynamic equilibrium is a state at which there are changes in the system but at the same time, the reverse reactions balance all these factors affecting the system. A dynamic equilibrium conditions that determines the stability of the system is the concentration, temperature, specific heat capacity of the system, pressure, etc.
How many conditions of dynamic equilibrium are there?
There are several conditions that are necessary for the dynamic equilibrium to occur.
The forces acting within the system has to be balanced such that the magnitude of the action and reaction force has to be equal. In the case of the chemical dynamic equilibrium, the rate of formation of the products and the products reacting back to produce back the reactant has to be equal.
To maintain this balance the forces have to be constrained. The other factors are also very essential to sustain the dynamic equilibrium of the system. These factors include the temperature, pressure, the type of system, heat energy, emissivity, etc.
What are the conditions of dynamic equilibrium?
There are several conditions responsible to obtain the dynamic equilibrium of the state depending upon the type of system.
For a dynamic state to occur the system should be a close system and no other external forces or mass has to interact with the system from the surrounding. Thus, the system is potent to achieve a stable state. The external conditions like temperature, heat supply, and pressure are essential to consider in regard to the dynamic equilibrium state.
For the mechanical dynamic equilibrium, the forces acting on the system have to be equal and opposite in magnitude, to balance the equilibrium state of the system. In chemical dynamic equilibrium, the rate of formation of product and reactant should be equal.
List Down the Conditions
There are various factors responsible for the dynamic state of equilibrium. Here is a list of the conditions essential for the dynamic equilibrium of the system that we are going to discuss here below:-
- The system should be a closed system
- The occurrence of a reversible process
- The rate of the forward and reverse reaction
- The equal and opposite forces
- Change in temperature
- Change in pressure
- Chemical Components
- Specific Heat Capacity
1. The system should be a closed system
The dynamic equilibrium occurs in a closed system only. The forces within a system should be balanced to acquire the state of dynamic equilibrium.
2. The occurrence of a reversible process
The dynamic equilibrium is attained only if there exist the reaction forces to reverse and balance the system. The rate of the forward reaction is equitable by a deploy of the reverse reaction.
3. The rate of the forward and reverse reaction
The rate of giving products and reactants have to be equal. The rate of formation of products and the conversion of products back into the reactants have to be equal for a system to occur in dynamic equilibrium.
4. The equal and opposite forces
The forces acting in the system have to be equal and opposite in magnitude. This is also one of the essential conditions for the dynamic equilibrium state to occur. The forces exerted should be in forward as well as reverse direction.
5. Change in temperature
If the temperature of the system increases, then the internal heat of the system also rises. The heat is essential for the bonds to break and form the new products. Thus the rate of the forward and backward reaction increases.
6. Change in pressure
The pressure is directly related to the temperature of the system. The higher the temperature, the pressure in a closed system has to be increased in proportionality to maintain the equilibrium in the system. Otherwise, a system may perturb and deviate from the dynamic equilibrium state of a system.
The rate of chemical reaction, the internal heat, and the pressure depend upon the quantity of the system. The greater the concentration, the more is the heat required to intensify the internal heat of the system and to perturb the system.
The density of the system is more if the concentration of the particle accumulated in a unit volume of the matter is high. If the density of the matter is more, then the internal pressure of the system will be more.
9. Chemical Components
The type of the chemical components present in the system determines the rate of the chemical reaction and the type of chemical bonding the molecules share. The energy is required to make a bond and the same amount of energy is given out on breaking the bonds.
10. Specific Heat Capacity
The specific heat capacity of the matter determines the total energy required to break the molecules apart. It is the capacity of the molecules to store the energy within the bonds.
What are the characteristics of a dynamic equilibrium?
Some conditions are very necessary to obtain a stage at which a system is in a dynamic equilibrium state. The system has to be in a close system. Even with a minute change in the dynamics of the system, the dynamic equilibrium properties of the system will vary.
Here is a list of the characteristic of a dynamic equilibrium:-
- The dynamic equilibrium is achieved within the closed system. No matter can transfer out from the system to the surrounding, nor a matter can enter inside the system from the surrounding.
- The reverse process occurs in a state of dynamic equilibrium.
- The magnitude of reaction and action forces is equal.
- The rate of reaction is constant even at the dynamic equilibrium but it is unnoticed. The reverse reaction rate become equivalent to the rate of the forward reaction, thus bringing the state to the dynamic equilibrium.
- The properties of the matter like concentration, pH, color, the emissivity of the matter are constant.
- The variations in the volume, chemical properties, pressure, heat, and temperature, can change the dynamic equilibrium of the state.
- The net force within a dynamic system is non zero.
- The dynamic equilibrium is more certain in the case of chemicals.
The dynamic equilibrium is a state in a closed system and the rate of reaction in the forward as well as reverse direction is balanced. The concentration and volume of the system are unvaried at this equilibrium state, but a slight change in the properties of the system can affect the dynamic equilibrium state of the system.