The cells are filled with a gelatinous substance called cytoplasm where most of the cellular activities takes place. Let us discuss the details of one of these processes.
Translation which is a process of the formation of proteins takes place inside the cell cytoplasm. In cytoplasm, messenger RNA is read and is translated into a stretch of amino acids which codes for a single or multiple proteins.
Translation takes place on ribosomes which are smaller units of RNA and associated proteins present in the cytoplasm in large numbers. Ribosomes take part in the synthesis of polypeptides and proteins by binding to the messenger RNA and transfer RNA.
Why Does Translation occur in the Cytoplasm?
The translation site in the living cells is the cytoplasm. Let us look into the reason for the fact that why translation occurs inside cytoplasm.
Messenger RNA which plays the central role in protein production is synthesized inside the nucleus and then transferred to the cytoplasm as the amino acids which are protein building blocks and the ribosomes reside in the cytoplasm.
In eukaryotic cells the translation process is organized and catalyzed with the help of ribosomes which are found in cytoplasm. For the process to start messenger RNA is released from the nucleus into external cytoplasm and this is the reason why translation happens in cytoplasm.
How does translation occur in the cytoplasm?
Translation is a sequential process which occur in the cytoplasm with the help of an array of enzymes. Let us look into the details of the process of translation.
- The entire translation process has been divided into three major steps; Initiation, Elongation, Termination.
- Initiation complex is formed where tRNA brings the first amino acid in the polypeptide chain and binds to start codon on mRNA.
- In the elongation step, transfer RNA function in adding amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain one by one.
- The last step is the termination where a release factor recognizes and binds to the stop codon. As a result of this, translational complex dissociated and a complete polypeptide is released.
The whole translation process involves decoding the information present on the messenger RNA and converting into the chain of amino acids known as polypeptide.
When does translation occur in the cytoplasm?
Translation is a highly regulated process occurring inside the cytoplasm. Let us talk more about when translation occur in the cytoplasm.
Translation occurs after transcription and post transcription process are done and a messenger RNA is ready for the next process. The translation process starts when the ribosome connects to the start codon present on the messenger RNA.
What happens during translation in the cytoplasm?
The protein synthesis process is highly dynamic and energy requiring process. Let us discuss what happens during translation inside cytoplasm.
During translation, the sequence of messenger RNA is used as a template and is read using a genetic code which is highly specific and is translated into twenty letter code of amino acids which forms up a protein.
The genetic code is composed of a set of three nucleotides which together called a codon where each codon codes for a specific amino acid. There are two types of codons that marks the starting and ending of the process known as start codon and stop codon.
Does translation occur in the ribosome?
Translation process involves the union of various factors and cell organelles. Let us look into the details whether translation occur in the ribosome or not.
Ribosomes are known as the factory for protein synthesis hence translation occur in the ribosome which are found floating and attached inside the cytoplasm. Ribosome is a complex of two subunits a smaller and a larger one.
A start codon is present on the mRNA sequence which is recognized and occupied by the smaller subunit of ribosome. This complex enables a tRNA to bind to the start codon and bring one amino acid.
Does translation occur in cytosol?
Cytosol is the matrix present in the cytoplasm which surrounds the cell organelles. Let us discuss if translation occurs in cytosol or not.
Translation occurs in cytosol in case of prokaryotes and archaebacteria. In prokaryotic cells both transcription and translation occur in the cytosol almost simultaneously.
The process of translation in cytosol and cytoplasm is almost same in the sense of decoding the information present on messenger RNA and binding of smaller and larger subunits of ribosomes. The enzymes involved are slightly different.
Does translation occur in the nucleus?
Nucleus is the hub of genetic material in eukaryotes and is also involved in many cellular processes. Let us discuss if translation occurs in nucleus or not.
The site of Translation is cytoplasm where ribosomes and other enzymes involved are present. Transcription on the other hand occurs in the nucleus.
Translation process occurs on ribosomes which in case of eukaryotes are present in the cytoplasm. In prokaryotic cells which does not have any cell compartmentalization, replication, transcription and translation occurs in the cytoplasm.
Does transcription occur in the cytoplasm?
Transcription is an RNA synthesis process using dsDNA as a template which occurs in all living cells. let us discuss if transcription occurs in cytoplasm.
Transcription occurs in cytoplasm in the prokaryotic cells while in the eukaryotic cell, transcription process takes place inside the nucleus because the eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized and complex as compared to prokaryotic cells.
To conclude the article, we can hereby say that the process of translation which is a protein synthesis mechanism occurs in the cell cytoplasm in both prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. It is highly regulated, controlled and dynamic process which involves a series of enzymes.