Titanium is used for various purposes in aircraft, toothpaste, paint, dental implants, etc. In this article, we shall discuss whether titanium can conduct electricity or not.
Titanium can conduct electricity because it is a metal, but its electrical conductivity is very poor. The atomic number of titanium is 22 with valence electronic configuration [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The availability of 2 free electrons in a 3d orbital makes it possible for titanium to conduct electricity of small intensity.
Being an electrically conductive, titanium is used to design electronic circuits, electronic weighing machines, earphones, etc. We shall further discuss in detail the electrical conductivity of titanium and the reason behind its poor conductivity, properties, and electrical resistivity.
Why is titanium a poor electrical conductor?
Poor electrical conductors conduct electrical energy at a very small scale. Let us ponder on the poor electric conductivity of titanium.
Titanium is a poor electrical conductor because its outermost 4s orbital is filled, and a 3d orbital with 2 free electrons that lies just below 4s orbital exerts more nuclear force that does not allow the electrons to move freely and conduct electricity. High energy is required to overcome nuclear forces.
What is the electrical conductivity of titanium?
The electrical conductivity of metal depends on the availability of free mobile electrons to produce electricity. Let us ponder on the electrical conductivity of titanium.
The electrical conductivity of titanium is 2.4 × 10-6 S/m. The Ti electrical conductivity is the inverse of its resistivity. It reduces with rising temperature as it loses electrons; thus, the current density through titanium decreases. Hence, the electrical conductivity of Ti is inversely related to the temperature.
Properties of Titanium
Several properties of titanium make it an electrical poor conductor and different from other metals. Let us list some of those properties here below.
- Titanium is a poor conductor solid metal with an hcp structure.
- Ti is a lustrous metal with a low density of 4.505 g/cm3 but high strength and tensile.
- Ti is corrosion resistance and paramagnetic.
- The melting point of Ti is greater than 1650 0C, and thermal expansion is 8.6 × 10-6 /K.
- Ti is mostly found in the oxide state.
What is the electrical resistivity of a titanium?
The property of metal to resist the flow of electric current is known as electrical resistivity. Let us talk about the electrical resistivity of titanium in detail.
The electrical resistivity of titanium is 420 × 10-9 Ώ.m. It is directly proportional to the temperature, increases with the rising temperature, and is inversely related to the electrical conductivity. It determines the resistance and stability of titanium and indicates how strongly it opposes the electric flow.
Why is titanium a poor electrical conductor than copper?
Copper is inexpensive and the best conductor of electricity among metals. Let us illustrate on the fact of the poor electrical conductivity of titanium than copper.
Titanium is a poor electrical conductor than copper because copper’s resistivity is 25 times less than Ti. Cu has one valence electron in the 4s orbital and is free to move, while titanium does not have free electrons in the outermost orbital. The electric flux density and thermal expansion are high in Cu than in Ti.
Why is titanium a bad conductor of heat?
Substances that do not allow heat to flow through them are the bad conductors of heat. Let us understand the reason behind the bad conductivity of Ti in the presence of heat.
Titanium is a bad conductor of heat because it does not allow heat to flow across it. No free electrons are available that can acquire and transmit heat through its matter as it is rigid. Hence, it behaves like an insulator and does not allow the heat to pass from one point to another.
We can conclude from this article that titanium can conduct electricity. The unavailability of free electrons in the outmost shell makes Ti a bad conductor of heat. There are two electrons present in the 3d orbital that helps in the conduction of electricity by titanium.
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