Does Mitosis Occur In Plant Cells: 7 Facts You Should Know


In this article, we’ll study about: does mitosis occur in plant cells and the facts around it.

Yes, plant cells undergo mitosis the same way as animal cells; however, they differ slightly. Mitosis is important since it performs the cell cycle in plant cells. The chromosomes in the cell are broken down into two new nuclei in a new daughter cell. 

Plants do not change shape before cell division or mitosis; therefore, after this division, the plant grows and develops its shape in terms of length, width, and diameter.

Mitosis, otherwise known as equational division, is a type of cell division that produces genetically similar cells with the same set of chromosomes. Cell division, likely known as mitosis, is required for plant growth, cell renewal, and asexual reproduction in a plant cell.

Mitosis is categorized into stages, each correlating to the end of one series of activities and the beginning of the next. Preprophase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase are the stages in plant cells.

Plant Mitosis as does mitosis occur in plant cell
Plant Mitosis – Shutterstock

Where does mitosis actively take place in plants?

In plants, mitosis actively occurs in the meristems of the meristematic tissue. The apical meristems, found at the apex of shoots and roots, help to lengthen the plant. There is also another meristem in the plant, known as the lateral meristem, which is found on the lateral side of the stem and root of a plant and helps the plant expand broader.

Intercalary, pericycle and fascicular meristems are the plant’s other meristems. These are effective mitotic regions that assist in the development of other different plant organs. The meristems of the plant are the regions where cells proliferate through mitosis or cell division.

Mitosis also occurs in the vascular cambium, increasing the diameter of stems and roots. Mitosis can also be observed in the cork cambium, which develops new bark cells or layers as the plant grows in girth.

Meristem of the plant cell as does mitosis occur in plant cells
Meristem of the plant cell – Wikipedia

Where does mitosis occur most frequently in plants?

Whenever more new cells are required for the plants, mitosis occurs quite swiftly during times of growth. The regions where mitosis occurs most frequently occur in the stems, root terminals, and the side branches of plants. In particular, they emerge from phases of dormancy, such as bud development and germination, especially in the spring.

A plant cell spends most of its existence conducting typical metabolic functions, maturing, and preparing for its next division. As a result, the root, stem, and branches frequently expand whenever a plant’s cell undergoes mitosis. Mitosis also contributes to restoring old cells into new cells that carry all of the parent cell’s genetic material. 

The new cells then expand and repeat the cell cycle until the plant achieves its ideal development. Also, anytime the plant requires future repair, such as when a branch breaks down, the plant’s cells emerge to make a new branch through mitosis or cell division.

When does mitosis occur in plant cells?

It happens during the S phase of the cell cycle, which is the interphase between two mitotic divisions. Since mitosis focuses on preserving the chromosomal set, each created cell obtains chromosomes that are similar in constitution and amount to the parent cell’s chromosomes.

As a result, the spindle fibers drag one copy of each chromosome to the cell’s opposites, resulting in two identical daughter cell nuclei. 

The chromosomes become more compact and visible as mitosis starts in the plant cell. A cell plate then arises between the two nuclei in plant cells. Cytokinesis is not always observable in plant cells. So, mitosis occurs without cytokinesis in coenocytic cells, which seem to be multinucleate. 

Interphase assists the cell in preparing for mitotic division. It determines whether or not mitotic cell division will take place. When the cell’s DNA is disrupted, or it hasn’t completed a critical phase, it properly prevents the cell from continuing. The interphase is essential because it determines whether mitosis is completed correctly. It will lower the number of damaged cells created and the number of malignant cells produced.

Why does mitosis occur in the root tip of plants?

Since most mitosis originates at the plant’s root tip, the tissue section at the root must have a high number of actively splitting cells for the root to expand in length. As a function, various phases of mitosis can be seen in this particular part of the plant.

Just under the root cap lies the apical meristem; the root tip emerges more frequently than the lateral meristem. As a result, cells in this region must go through the cell cycle frequently. Without these transmissions, cells divide to generate secondary roots, resulting in a larger number of cells in mitosis.

As the root is the plant’s anchoring support, the roots proliferate, penetrate the soil, spread, and capture nutrients required for the plant’s growth. It also operates as a sensor and relays messages to the entire plant to perform better activities for the plant. 

What does mitosis produce during cell division?

When a plant necessitates growth, it also requires the old parent cell to divide to produce new daughter cells, which mitosis accomplishes. Mitosis is a necessary component of the life of plants and animals. A cell doubles all components, including its genomes, and separates into two genetically and morphologically identical daughter cells during mitosis.

As a result, when a plant cell undergoes mitosis, it produces two identical daughter cells genetically similar to the parent cell, each with 2N sets of chromosomes.

Does mitosis produce diploid cells in plants?

Yes, plants do produce diploid cells as a result of mitosis. It is because the parent cell possesses diploid cells containing the genetic material. So, when the cell divides, the diploid cells split into two new identical daughter cells. Therefore, these two daughter cells have the same amount of genetic material that the parent cell had as a diploid cell. As a result, the set of chromosomes in a cell does not vary following division.

And sometimes, plants with diploid parent cells, such as sporophytes, can form haploid spores during meiosis. The haploid spores then undergo mitosis and grow into haploid gametophytes in the daughter cells that arise as a result.

Diploid cells in plants as does mitosis occur in plant cells
Diploid cells in plants Wikipedia

What is the significance of mitosis in a plant?

In both plant and animal life, mitosis is the most significant activity. It is necessary for plant vegetative proliferation and the restoration and rejuvenation of disfigured tissues caused by changing environmental conditions. It is also essential for asexual reproduction in some plants.

It also assists in maintaining the genome’s purity by preventing crossing-over and recombination. Mitosis preserves organisms’ genetic security or stability by producing two genetically and morphologically identical cells in the new daughter cells.

Conclusion

Hence, mitosis is critical for plants to grow and repair in preparation for any forthcoming harsh environmental conditions that may hinder the plant’s structure. If a plant cell’s tissue is damaged in any situation, it can be restored through cell division or mitosis. Also, the transmission of a parent cell’s genetic materials onto new daughter cells is the major outcome of mitosis and cytokinesis.

Roshny Batu

Hey! I'm Roshny Batu. I got a Bachelor of Science degree in Botany. In the domain of academic writing, I consider myself fortunate to be a part of the Lambdageeks family as an SME in Bio-Technology. Apart from that, I love designing interiors, painting, and mastering makeup artist skills.

Recent Posts