Do Ribosomes Make Proteins ? 5 Facts You Should Know


Ribosomes are one of the most primitive cell organelle present in every living cell. Here we are going to find out the answer of do ribosomes make Proteins or not, along with five most relevant facts respectively.

Ribosomes are the only cell organelle which make proteins within the cell. From prokaryotic cell to eukaryotic cell type, ribosomes are responsible for the production of protein molecules through the translation process. During translation the ribosomes read the genetic codons from mRNAs and arrange amino acids according to them and synthesize protein molecules one by one. 

As ribosomes are the only cell organelle present in cellular systems, they have the capability to read the genetic information from mRNA and arrange the amino acids according to that. If all the ribosomes from a cell are removed the protein production procedure stops.

Prokaryotic cells have 70S types of ribosomes which help to produce protein required for that cell type. In eukaryotic cells as much more proteins are needed more number of 80S ribosomes are present. Apart from cytosol, in different cell organelles ribsomes are found. In eukaryotic animal cells the mitochondria  have its own ribosomes. In eukaryotic plant cells chloroplast also have their own ribsomes participates in protein synthesis.

Why do ribosomes make proteins?

With the concern to the question ribosomes are the most important cell organelle perform the protein translation process.

Ribosomes make protein molecules because they are the only cell organelle that have the ability to read the mRNAs or messenger RNAs and arrange one of the twenty amino acids  according to them to make Proteins. Hence the ribosomes Known as the protein factory of cells. They are one of the most important aliments required during cellular translation mechanisms.

The ribosomes read the mRNAs from 5´ to 3´ direction and add amino acids According to the genetic instructions one after another. Ribosomes add amino acids in polypeptide chains from the amino to the carboxy terminus sequencially.

Which ribosomes make proteins?

In both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells ribosomes are present. 

According to the position there are generally two types of ribosomes found within the cell, such as- free ribosomes and fixed ribosomes. Both of them make proteins simultaneously. Apart from that are two two different structured ribosomes are found within prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells such as – 70S ribosomes and 80S ribosomes. Both of the ribosomes in respective prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells make proteins. Thus all kinds of ribosomes make proteins.

The free ribosomes are present all over the cytosol and participate in the production of proteins which is specifically required for that cell. They move freely from one place to another and perform protein translation. 

Ribosomes attached with the ERs or Endoplasmic reticulums are participating in the production of protein molecules which are specifically exported outside that cell. 

How do ribosomes make protein?

The process of protein production by encoding the genetic instructions from mRNA is known as the translation process. In prokaryotic cells after transcription process and in eukaryotic cells after post transcriptional modifications and mRNA undergoes for translation.

Ribosomes are the core components assist the whole protein synthesis process following the mechanism of the translation. Ribosomes first read the genetic instructions from mRNAs or messenger RNAs then they arrange the tRNAs containing amino acids according to the codons. As per the codons the ribosomes arrange tRNAs containing amino acids one after another, continued to make polypeptide chains. When Ribosomes reaches the stop codons, indicating the completion of the whole protein synthesis oparation, it stops to add new amino acids and make a whole protein molecule.

After the synthesis of linear polypeptide chain by ribosomes, it needs to be folded. In undergoes protein folding process where the linear polypeptide chain get a three dimensional structure of it and obatin stability as well.

Multiple translation process to make proteins from Wikimedia commons

What do ribosomes do to proteins?

As ribsomes are the main cell organelle accociated with protein synthesis, it is very important to know what do ribosomes do to make proteins.

The ribosomes help to produce protein molecules by arranging the amino acids as per the genetic information received from the messenger RNAs. The ribosomes do nothing but arrange the building blocks or structural units of protein molecules that are the amino acids one by one. After reading the start codon in eukaryotic cells the Ribosomes start to arrange amino acids sequencially. When it reaches the stop codon it stops addition of new amino acid group and release the polypeptide chain. 

Apart from making the protein molecules, the fixed ribosomes that are attached to ERs send the protein molecules out of the cell to function in distant places. 

Do ribsomes make Proteins
Do ribosomes make Proteins from Wikimedia commons

What do ribosomes make proteins out of?

As ribosomes only assist the protein production within cell they use certain molecular components as building blocks to make the whole protein structure.

The protein structure is made up of several amino acids bound together with peptide bonds. In the primary, secondary or tertiary structure of proteins the main components are the amino acid groups, indicating that the ribosomes make proteins out of several amino acids.

Can proteins be made without ribosomes?

In cell ribosomes are known as the protein factory, only where all the protein nesserary to the cell manufactured. 

In the cellular system ribosomes are the core organelle that synthesizes proteins from amino acids. In the living system within cells proteins can not be made without ribosomes. If in a cell all ribosomes become dysfunctional or removed from the cell, the translation process becomes hampared and the protein production stops. As proteins are the most important component for the life a cell, without protein production the cell cannot survive. 

Conclusion

As a whole we can say that ribosomes are the only cell organelle present in every cell type responsible for the production of protein molecules. Here we give the answer of do ribosomes make Proteins or not, along with five most relevant facts. Hope this article on do ribosomes make Proteins or not will be helpful to you.

Piyali Das

Hello, I am Piyali Das, pursuing my Post Graduation in Zoology from Calcutta University. I am very passionate on Academic Article writing. My aim is to explain complex things in simple way through my writings for the readers. We can connect through LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/in/piyali-das-484019216 .

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