Do Eukaryotic Cells Have Cytoplasm? 7 Facts You Should Know

In this article, we came to know about the different features of eukaryotic cytoplasm and find out do eukaryotic cells have cytoplasm.

All the cells present in the nature whether eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have cytoplasm inside the cell. cytoplasm is the thick solution that present inside the cell and enclosed by the cell membrane.

In the eukaryotic cells, all liquid present between the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane known as cytoplasm. All the organelles of cells Like Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Golgi Bodies, Endoplasmic Reticulum present inside the cytoplasm.

Do all eukaryotic cells have cytoplasm?

All the eukaryotic cells have cytoplasm present inside it. Cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells are gel-like, water-based fluids that attain most of the cell volume. The word ‘cytoplasm’ implies the meaning “cell substance”. Many cell organelles such as Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Bodies, Lysosomes, Chloroplasts and many more distributed inside the cytoplasm. Hence, the cytoplasm acts as site or various metabolic activities of cells.

Due to gel-like consistency, the cell will able to move. This will help to move eukaryotes amoeba for shape adaption and formation of different shapes of pseudopodia. The eukaryotic cytoplasm consistency depends on the other constituents that floats in the cytoplasm. Various constituents include organic molecules, salts and different kind of enzymes that catalyzes the chemical reactions that happen in the cell.

When the cytoplasm is observed under transmission electron microscope, the eukaryotic cytoplasm appears as a three-lattice work of strands. The cytoplasm lattice is made up of different kind of cytoplasmic proteins. Cytoplasmic proteins are scaffolding structures that help in the cell division process and shape of the cell. cytoskeleton is responsible for cell shape.

The cytoplasm composed of different types of proteins. These protein form three types of filamentous structures called as microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. These filaments are connected to the most of organelles present in the cytoplasm, serve to hold the organelles together.

Do eukaryotic cells have DNA in the cytoplasm?

In most of eukaryotic cells, DNA is present in the nucleus which enclosed from the nuclear membrane. Thus, this DNA is known as Nuclear DNA. In addition to nuclear DNA, small amount of extra DNA found in the other cell organelles like mitochondria called mitochondrial DNA. (mtDNA).

Nuclear DNA is assembling into linear molecules called chromosomes. The chromosomes size and number vary from species to species. In human, the number of chromosomes is 46 (23 pairs) and fruit fly Drosophila having 4 chromosomes. There is exception, in the mature red blood cells; no nucleus found and in sperm and egg cells only 23 unpaired chromosomes present.

The eukaryotic DNA is wrapped around I small, spool-like proteins called histones. The histones help the DNA for wrapping otherwise without histones DNA would not fit into the cells. In humans, if we unwind the DNA it would be around 6 feet long and the nucleus where is present only of size 5-10 µm. In this way histones plays important role in the packing of DNA in the nucleus.

Eukaryotic cell v/s prokaryotic cells from Shutterstock

Do eukaryotic cells have plasmids in the cytoplasm?

The plasmids are not restricted to the bacterial cells. The plasmids also found in some eukaryotic cells like in some fungi. In the fungi, plasmids are naturally present. One of the yeasts (fungi) plasmid is called as 2µ circle. The 2µ is the extrachromosomal structure found in the nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This 2µ circle do not give any kind of specific advantages but help to maintain the at about 50 to 100 copies per haploid genome of the yeast cell.

In the algae Chlamydomonas, plasmids also seen to maintain the high copy number per cell. in this alga, the plasmid is found in its chloroplast. Plasmids are common in fungi and higher plants.

The first plasmid in the eukaryotic cells detected in 1967 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast). plasmids are also found in the Zea mays (corn/maize), Podospora anserine (a filamentous fungus) and other fungi.

Many eukaryotic plasmids DNA are linear in nature. In some eukaryotic like 2µm DNA plasmids are associated with nucleus. But in most of the eukaryotic cells, the plasmids are associated with the mitochondria. It is found that some mitochondrial DNA are integrated with the mitochondrial plasmid DNA.

Do eukaryotic cells have liquid cytoplasm?

The eukaryotic cytoplasm having 70-80% water, semi-sold consistency due to proteins present in it. The cytoplasm is having cell organelles, gel-like cytosol, cytoskeleton and various chemicals.

Not only proteins but glucose and other simple sugars, polysaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol derivatives and nucleic acid are present in the eukaryotic cytoplasm. Different types of ions like ions of sodium, calcium, potassium an many other elements dissolved in the cytoplasm.

Do eukaryotic cells have Cytoplasm
Organelles of eukaryotic cell from Shutterstock

Do eukaryotic cells have cytoplasmic membranes?

The cytoplasmic membrane is the membrane that enclosed the cytoplasm. It is also known as cell membrane, plasma membrane. All the eukaryotic cells have cytoplasmic membrane around its cytoplasm.

The cytoplasmic membranes separate out the cell from the external environments. The plasma membrane is mainly made up of phospholipids and proteins. The lipid occurs in two layers usually bilayer. Protein are present in the two form either they are emended in to the layer of float at the layer. The membrane is therefore called as a fluid mosaic structure.

‘The cytoplasmic helps to maintain the shape of the cell and also act as barrier to the most of solute. It is selectively permeable (allow only specific molecules in and out of cell).

Does eukaryotic cells have DNA that float in the cytoplasm?

In the eukaryotic cells, DNA packed in a membrane-bound structure known as nucleus. Chromosomal DNA float freely only in the prokaryotic cells. The DNA present in the nucleus packed in compact into chromosomes by histones. The DNA has telomere at both ends to protect from deterioration.

Replicated chromosomes are divides by the nuclear division mitosis and separated with the help of cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton present universally in the eukaryotic cells. The cytoskeleton is composed of actin microfilament and microtubules.

Eukaryotic cytoplasm function

The eukaryotic cells performs many important function explained as follows.

Provide optimal environment

The cytoplasm having different kinds of ions, enzymes and many more constituents that help to maintain the optimum environment for the cellular organelles.

Site for metabolic reactions

The cytoplasm having different organelles that carry out complex metabolic reactions mainly includes protein synthesis and energy production.

Structural support

The cytoplasm is gel-like provide the structural support with the help of cytoskeleton to the whole cell and provide shape to the cell.

Transportation of nutrients

The eukaryotic cytoplasm cells functions to transport the dissolved nutrients into the cell and elute out waste material from the cell. These function is only possible because of cytoplasmic streaming.

Support the other cell organelles

The cytoplasm help to support and suspends cell organelles like Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Lysozyme, Golgi Bodies and many more.

Help to get food

In the lower eukaryotes like amoebae cytoplasm help to form different shape to pseudopodia to get the food from the outside environment.

Help in movement

In the protists like amoebae, cytoplasm watery consistency help in the movement from one place to other in search of food.

Signaling activity

The signaling activity of cytoplasm includes the movement calcium ions in and out of the cytoplasm for metabolic activities.

Cytoplasmic streaming

In the plant cells, the movement of cytoplasm around the vacuoles called as cytoplasmic streaming.

Eukaryotic cytoplasm structure

The cytoplasm is the part of cell which is enclosed inside the cell. The eukaryotic cells like animals, plants and fungi all are having cytoplasm inside the cell. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells having cytosol, various kinds of ions, enzymes and cell organelles.

Cytosol is the main part of cytoplasm which constituents around 70% of total cytoplasm. Cytosol is the site where different cell organelles and other cellular structures can operate in.

Endoplasmic reticulum may be smooth and rough, major site for protein synthesis. Another important organelle is Golgi Apparatus, function to modify, sort and pack protein in preparation for its transport to its specific final destination.

There are small sacs of digestive enzymes called lysosomes and peroxisomes, function in intracellular digestion. Cytoskeleton present in the cytoplasm provide shape to cell are of two types: microfilament and microtubules.

Centrioles are present in the animal cell function to organize the cytoskeleton of animal cytoplasm. Chloroplasts are present in the plant cell help in the process of photosynthesis. Vacuoles is present in the mature plant cell cytoplasm, aids to maintain the water balance in the cell.

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