Do Bacterial Cells Have Cytoplasm: 5 Facts You Should Know


In this article, let’s see the 5 facts about the Bacterial Cytoplasm

All bacteria are prokaryotic cells that consist of cytoplasm: a gel-like solution that contains 80% water, genetic material DNA, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, gases, and other cell organelles like ribosomes and plastids.

What is the cytoplasm of bacteria?

Bacteria cytoplasm also known as protoplasm is a green-colored gel-like matrix solution that is made up of 80% water and 20% of cytosol, organelles, and various granules called cytoplasmic inclusions.

The organelles that are present in the cytoplasm are ribosomes, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), and plasmids. The type of ribosome present in the bacteria is 70s type with one small unit 30s and large unit 50s. It also contains enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and other nutrients. Plasmids are circular DNA that is not similar to the chromosome.

Do bacterial cells have cytoplasm?

All bacterial cells contain cytoplasm that is surrounded by a membrane called cytoplasmic membrane or plasma membrane.

The membrane is made up of a semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer, allowing only specific molecules to diffuse inside and outside the cell. The bilayer does not contain sterols but is made up of monosaturated fatty acids. They also have sterol-like molecules called haponoids that stabilize the cell membrane.

do bacterial cells have cytoplasm
Bacterial cell with Cytoplasm from Shutterstock

Bacterial cytoplasm function

The main functions of the cytoplasm are

  • Cell-growth
  • Metabolism
    • Protein Synthesis
    • Respiration
  • Replication

It also contains helical actin-like proteins that along with the cell wall provide shape to the cell. The organelles like the ribosomes and the chromosomes are suspended in the cytoplasm.

Binary fission is the type of cell growth that occurs in bacteria which results in two daughter cells that are identical to the parent. When the cell divides the chromosomes get duplicated and the cytoplasm also divides to form two new cells.

Binary Fission of Bacteria from Shutterstock

Important cellular functions like protein synthesis and respiration takes place in the cytoplasm. Protein synthesis is a two stage process where the messenger RNA (mRNA) is synthesized by transcription process and mRNA undergoes translation to form amino acids. The type of ribosome involved in protein synthesis is 70s type, the process is initiated when the 30s subunit of the ribosome binds to mRNA and the aminoacyl tRNA binds to the start codon. The protein synthesis has three steps; initiation, elongation and termination.

Cellular respiration is a process where energy is generated by breaking down glucose into carbon-di-oxide and water using oxygen in aerobic respiration and using nitrate in anaerobic respiration. Adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) and NADH are formed as the end products of cellular respiration.

Replication of the bacterial DNA takes place in the cytoplasm as the bacteria do not have specialized organelles like nucleus which are present in eukaryotes. The replication occurs in both the direction from the origin of replication and a complex called replisome is formed by the aggregation of proteins that are responsible for DNA replication. The initiation takes place in the oriC region and terminated at the ter region.

Do bacterial cells have cytosol?

The water component of the cytoplasm is called the cytosol which contains all compounds that are needed for the survival of the bacteria.

The cytosol is aqueous in nature and contains high concentrations of metabolites, ions, and proteins. It is also called a cytoplasmic matrix or ground last in which all the metabolic pathways like respiration and protein synthesis takes place.

Cytosol in the Bacterial cell from Shutterstock

Cytosol vs. cytoplasm

S.No Cytosol Cytoplasm
1.The fluid present in the cell membrane is known as cytosolThe cell components inside the cell membrane are known as cytoplasm
2The cytosol is made up of water, proteins, soluble ions, and large water-soluble molecules.The cytoplasm is made up of water, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and non-inorganic ions.
3All chemical reactions take place in the cytosolLarge cellular activities like cell division take place in the cytoplasm
4The diversity is lowthe diversity of the components is high compared to that of the cytosol
5Transportation of molecules and signal transduction takes place in the cytosolNuclear division, cytokinesis, and signal transduction take place in the cytoplasm

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