Coulomb’s Law is a fundamental principle in physics that describes **the electrostatic interaction** between charged particles. It states that the force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This law, formulated by **French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb** in the late 18th century, provides **a mathematical relationship** for calculating the force between charged particles. It has **significant applications** in various fields, including ** electrical engineering and particle physics**.

**Key Takeaways**

Coulomb’s Law |
---|

Describes the electrostatic interaction between charged particles |

Force is directly proportional to the product of charges |

Force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between charges |

**Understanding Coulomb’s Law**

Coulomb’s Law is a fundamental principle in physics that describes the electric forces between charged objects. It falls under **the branch** of physics known as electrostatics, which deals with charge interactions and the behavior of electric fields. This law is named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, a French physicist who first formulated it in the late 18th century.

**Definition of Coulomb’s Law**

Coulomb’s Law states that the force between two **point charges** is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Mathematically, it can be expressed as:

**[ F = k frac{{q_1 q_2}}{{r^2**}} ]

Where**: – ( F** ) is the force between

**the charge**s

–

**( k**) is the constant of proportionality, known as Coulomb’s constant or

**the permittivity**of free space

**– ( q_1**) and

**( q_2**) are

**the magnitudes**of

**the charge**s

–

**( r**) is the distance between

**the charge**s

**The equation** follows the inverse square law, meaning that as the distance between **the charge**s increases, the force between them decreases rapidly.

**The Equation for Coulomb’s Law**

To better understand Coulomb’s Law, let’s break down the equation and **its components**:

Charge (( q )): Charge is

**a fundamental property**of matter. It can be positive or negative, and like charges repel each other while opposite charges attract. The unit of charge is the Coulomb (C).Distance (

**( r**)): The distance between two charges affects the strength of the force between them. As**the charge**s get closer, the force increases. The unit of distance is typically meters (m).Constant of Proportionality (

**( k**)): Coulomb’s constant, denoted by**( k**), is**a fundamental constant**in physics.**Its value**is approximately**( 9 times 10^9**, text{N m}^2/text{C}^2 ). It determines the strength of the electric force between charges.

**Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form**

Coulomb’s Law can also be expressed in vector form, taking into account the direction of the force. In this form, the equation becomes:

**[ mathbf{F} = k frac{{q_1 q_2}}{{r^2**}**} mathbf{hat{r**}} ]

Where:

– ( mathbf{F} ) is **the force vector**

– ( mathbf{hat{r}} ) is **the unit** vector pointing from **the first charge** to **the second charge**

By using **the vector form**, we can determine **both the magnitude** and direction of the force between charges.

Understanding Coulomb’s Law and **its equation** is crucial in **various areas** of physics, such as studying the behavior of electric fields, analyzing the force between charged particles, and explaining phenomena like **electrostatic attraction** and repulsion. It provides **a fundamental framework** for understanding **the interaction**s between charged objects and plays a significant role in **our understanding** of the universe.

**The Significance of Coulomb’s Law**

Coulomb’s Law is a fundamental principle in physics that describes the electric forces between charged objects. It provides **a mathematical formula** to calculate the force between two **point charges** and plays **a crucial role** in understanding charge interactions and electrostatics. This law, based on the inverse square law, helps us comprehend the behavior of electric forces and **their impact** on **various phenomena**.

**Why Coulomb’s Law is Important**

Coulomb’s Law holds **great significance** in the field of physics and has **several important applications**. Let’s explore why **this law** is essential:

**Understanding Fundamental Forces:**Coulomb’s Law is one of**the fundamental laws**of physics, along with laws like**Newton’s Laws**of Motion and**the Law**of Universal Gravitation. It helps us comprehend the nature of electric forces and**their similarities**to**other fundamental forces**in the universe.**Calculating Force between Charges:**Coulomb’s Law provides**a precise formula**to calculate the force between two charged objects. The formula states that the force between two charges (q1 and q2) is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (r) between them. This allows us to determine the magnitude and direction of the force accurately.

The formula for Coulomb’s Law is given by:

Here, F represents the force between **the charge**s, k is **the Coulomb’s constant, q1** and q2 are

**the charge**s, and r is the distance between them.

**Exploring Electric Fields:**Coulomb’s Law is closely related to the concept of electric fields.**The electric field**around a charged object is a region where**other charges**experience electric forces. By understanding Coulomb’s Law, we can analyze and calculate**the electric field strength**and direction at**different points**in space.**Determining Equilibrium and Stability:**Coulomb’s Law helps us determine**the equilibrium**and stability of charged objects. When two charges experience**an attractive force**, they tend to move closer together until they reach**a stable equilibrium**. On the other hand, when two charges experience**a repulsive force**, they tend to move apart. This understanding is crucial in various fields, including chemistry, electronics, and**material science**.

**Real-life Applications of Coulomb’s Law**

Coulomb’s Law finds **practical applications** in **numerous real-life scenarios**. Here are **a few examples**:

**Electrostatic Attraction and Repulsion:**Coulomb’s Law explains why objects with opposite charges attract each other, while objects with like charges repel each other.**This principle**is fundamental in understanding the behavior of static electricity, such as when a balloon sticks to**a wall**after being rubbed against hair.**Electrostatic Precipitators:**Coulomb’s Law is utilized in**electrostatic precipitators**, which are devices used to remove**particulate matter**from**industrial exhaust gases**. By applying an electric field, charged particles are attracted to**oppositely charged plates**, allowing for**efficient air purification**.**Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection:**Coulomb’s Law is crucial in designing**ESD protection systems**for**electronic devices**. By understanding the forces between charges, engineers can develop**effective measures**to prevent damage caused by**electrostatic discharge**, such as**lightning protection systems**and**anti-static wristbands**.**Particle Accelerators:**Coulomb’s Law plays a significant role in**particle accelerators**, such as**the Large Hadron Collider**(LHC).**These devices**use electric fields to accelerate charged particles to**high speeds**, allowing scientists to study**the fundamental properties**of matter and explore**the mysteries**of the universe.

**The Physics and Chemistry of Coulomb’s Law**

**Coulomb’s Law in Physics**

Coulomb’s Law is a fundamental principle in physics that describes the electric forces between charged objects. It is **a cornerstone** of electrostatics, which is the study of charge interactions at rest. This law is named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, a French physicist who first formulated it in the late 18th century.

According to Coulomb’s Law, the force between two **point charges** is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Mathematically, it can be expressed as:

Where:

– F is the force between **the charge**s (in newtons)

**– q₁** and q₂ are **the magnitudes** of **the charge**s (in coulombs)

**– r** is the distance between **the charge**s (in meters)

– k is the Coulomb’s constant, approximately equal to **9 ×** 10^9 N·m²/C²

The force between charges can be attractive or repulsive, depending on the signs of **the charge**s. Like charges (positive-positive or negative-negative) repel each other, while opposite charges (positive-negative or negative-positive) attract each other.

To better understand Coulomb’s Law, let’s consider **a few examples**:

**Example 1:**Suppose we have two**point charges**,**q₁ = 2 C and q₂ = -3 C**, separated by a distance of**r = 4 m.**Using Coulomb’s Law, we can calculate the force between them:

The force between **the charge**s is **4.5 × 10^8 N**, directed towards each other due to **their opposite signs**.

**Example 2:**Let’s consider two**point charges**, q₁ = 5 μC and q₂ = 5 μC, placed at a distance of**r = 1 m.**Using Coulomb’s Law, we can determine the force between them:

The force between **the charge**s is **45 N**, directed away from each other due to **their like charges**.

Coulomb’s Law can also be expressed in vector form, taking into account the direction of the force. In this form, the force is represented as **a vector** with magnitude and direction. **The vector form** of Coulomb’s Law is given by:

Where:

– is **the force vector**

– is **the unit** vector pointing from **one charge** to the other

**Coulomb’s Law in Chemistry**

In chemistry, Coulomb’s Law is also applicable when studying **the interaction**s between charged particles, such as ions or molecules. **These charged entities** can experience **attractive or repulsive forces** based on their charges and distances.

For example, consider **two ions** with **charges q₁** and q₂, separated by a distance r. The force between them can be calculated using Coulomb’s Law, similar to **the physics examples** mentioned earlier. This understanding is crucial in **various chemical processes**, including **the formation** and breaking of **chemical bonds**.

In addition to the force between charges, Coulomb’s Law is also related to the concept of electric fields. **An electric field** is a region around a charged object where **another charged object** experiences **a force**. **The electric field** strength at **a point** is determined by the magnitude and sign of **the charge** creating the field.

**The permittivity** of free space (ε₀) is **another important factor** in Coulomb’s Law. It represents **the ability** of **a vacuum** to permit **the formation** of an electric field. **The value** of ε₀ is approximately 8.85 × 10^(-12) C²/N·m².

By understanding Coulomb’s Law and **its applications** in **both physics** and chemistry, we gain insights into **the fundamental forces** that govern the behavior of charged objects. Whether it’s **the attraction** between opposite charges or **the repulsion** between like charges, Coulomb’s Law provides **a quantitative understanding** of **these interactions**.

**The Universality and Limitations of Coulomb’s Law**

**Is Coulomb’s Law Universal?**

Coulomb’s Law is a fundamental principle in physics that describes the electric forces between charged objects. It is **a cornerstone** of electrostatics, which is the study of charge interactions and the behavior of electric fields. Coulomb’s Law states that the force between two **point charges** is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. **This relationship** is known as the inverse square law.

The formula for Coulomb’s Law is given by:

`F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2`

Where:

– F is the force between **the charge**s

– k is the constant of proportionality, known as Coulomb’s constant or **the permittivity** of **free space – q1** and q2 are

**the charge**s of the

**two objects**

**– r**is the distance between

**the charge**s

Coulomb’s Law applies to **both attractive and repulsive forces** between charges. When **the charge**s have **the same sign**, the force is repulsive, causing **the charge**s to push away from each other. When **the charge**s have opposite signs, the force is attractive, causing **the charge**s to pull towards each other.

**The units** of charge in Coulomb’s Law are coulombs (C), and **the unit** of distance is meters (m). **The constant** of proportionality, Coulomb’s constant, is approximately equal to **8.99 x 10^9 N·m^2/C^2**.

Coulomb’s Law can also be expressed in vector form, taking into account the direction of the force. In this form, the force is represented as **a vector** quantity, denoted by **F**. The formula becomes:

`**F** = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2 * **r̂**`

Where **r̂** is **the unit** vector pointing from **the first charge** to **the second charge**.

**Limitations and Validity of Coulomb’s Law**

While Coulomb’s Law is **a powerful tool** for understanding electric forces, it does have **some limitations** and assumptions. It is important to be aware of **these limitations** when applying Coulomb’s Law to **different scenarios**.

**Point Charges**: Coulomb’s Law assumes that**the charge**s involved are**point charges**, meaning they are concentrated at**a single location**. In reality, charges are often distributed over**an area**or volume. When dealing with non-**point charges**, Coulomb’s Law may not accurately predict the forces between them.**Distance**: Coulomb’s Law assumes that**the charge**s are separated by a distance much larger than**their sizes**. If**the charge**s are very close together, the law may not be valid. Additionally, Coulomb’s Law assumes that**the charge**s are in**a vacuum**or free space. In**other media**, such as dielectrics, the law may need to be modified to account for the effects of**the medium**.**Validity**: Coulomb’s Law is valid for**static charges**at rest. It does not account for the effects of**moving charges**or changing electric fields. In**such cases**,**more advanced theories**, such as electromagnetism, are required to accurately describe the behavior of**the charge**s.

Despite **these limitations**, Coulomb’s Law remains a fundamental principle in physics and provides **a solid foundation** for understanding electric forces. It is widely applicable in various fields, including electronics, **electrical engineering**, and astrophysics. By understanding **the universality** and limitations of Coulomb’s Law, we can effectively analyze and predict the behavior of electric charges and **their interactions**.

**The Inverse Square Nature of Coulomb’s Law**

**Why Coulomb’s Law is an Inverse Square Law**

Coulomb’s Law is a fundamental principle in physics that describes the electric forces between charged objects. It is **an essential concept** in the field of electrostatics, which deals with **the interaction**s between electric charges at rest. One of **the remarkable aspects** of Coulomb’s Law is **its inverse square nature**, which states that the force between two charges is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

To understand why Coulomb’s Law follows **an inverse square relationship**, let’s consider two **point charges**, q1 and q2, separated by a distance r. The force between **these charges**, denoted as F, can be calculated using the formula:

**F = k** * (q1 * q2) / r^2

Here, k represents the constant of proportionality known as Coulomb’s constant, which is approximately equal to **9 ×** 10^9 N·m^2/C^2. **The negative sign** in the formula indicates that like charges repel each other, while opposite charges attract.

**The inverse square relationship** arises from **the fact** that the electric field created by **a point** charge decreases with the square of the distance from **the charge**. **This electric field** exerts **a force** on **any other charge** placed within **its influence**. As the distance between **the charge**s increases, the electric field weakens, resulting in **a decrease** in the force between them.

To illustrate **this concept** further, let’s consider **an example**. Suppose we have two **point charges**, q1 and q2, with values of +2C and -4C, respectively, separated by a distance of **2 meters**. Plugging **these values** into Coulomb’s Law formula, we can calculate the force between them:

F = (**9 ×** 10^9 N·m^2/C^2) * ((+2C) * (-4C)) / (2m)^2

Simplifying the equation, we find that the force between **the charge**s is equal to -36 N. **The negative sign** indicates that the force is attractive, as **the charge**s have opposite signs.

**Similarities between Coulomb’s Law and Newton’s Law**

Coulomb’s Law bears similarities to Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, which describes **the gravitational force** between **two masses**. **Both laws** follow **an inverse square relationship**, where the force between **two objects** decreases with the square of the distance between them.

However, there are **some key differences** between **Coulomb’s Law and Newton’s Law**. Firstly, Coulomb’s Law deals with electric charges, while Newton’s Law focuses on masses. Secondly, the constant of proportionality in Coulomb’s Law, Coulomb’s constant, is much larger than **the gravitational constant** in Newton’s Law. **This difference** in magnitude reflects **the relative strength** of **the electric and gravitational forces**.

**Another distinction** lies in the nature of the forces. While **the gravitational force** is always attractive, the electric force can be either attractive or repulsive, depending on **the charge**s involved. Like charges repel each other, while opposite charges attract.

**Solving Problems Using Coulomb’s Law**

Coulomb’s Law is a fundamental principle in physics that describes the electric forces between charged objects. It is **a key concept** in the study of electrostatics, which deals with **the interaction**s between electric charges at rest. Understanding Coulomb’s Law allows us to calculate the force between charges and analyze **various charge interactions**.

**How to Solve Coulomb’s Law Questions**

To solve problems using Coulomb’s Law, we need to follow **a systematic approach**. Here’s a step-by-step guide:

**Identify the given information**: Start by identifying**the known quantities**in the problem. Look for values such as**the charge**s of the objects involved, the distance between them, and**any other relevant information**.**Assign variables**: Assign variables to**the given quantities**.**Commonly used variables**include ‘q’ for charge, ‘r’ for distance, and ‘F’ for force. This helps us write the problem in**a more concise and general form**.**Determine the type of charge**: Determine whether**the charge**s are positive or negative. Like charges (both positive or both negative) will repel each other, while opposite charges will attract.**Apply Coulomb’s Law formula**: Use the Coulomb’s Law formula to calculate the force between**the charge**s. The formula states that the force between two**point charges**is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It can be written as:

Here, ‘F’ represents the magnitude of the force, ‘k’ is the Coulomb’s constant (also known as the constant of proportionality), ‘q1’ and ‘q2’ are **the charge**s of the objects, and ‘r’ is the distance between them.

**Convert units**: Make sure to convert**the unit**s of charge and distance to**the appropriate system**. For example, if**the charge**s are given in microcoulombs (μC), convert them to coulombs (C) before plugging them into the formula. Similarly, if the distance is given in centimeters (cm), convert it to meters (m).**Calculate the force**: Substitute**the given values**into the Coulomb’s Law formula and calculate the force between**the charge**s. Pay attention to the signs of**the charge**s to determine whether the force is attractive or repulsive.**Check for equilibrium**: If the problem involves**multiple charges**, check if**the system**is in equilibrium. In equilibrium, the net force on**each charge**is zero. This can help you determine**the relationship**between**the charge**s and**their distances**.

**Practice Problems and Solutions**

Let’s apply **the above steps** to **a couple** of **practice problems**:

**Problem 1:**

Two **point charges**, ‘q1’ and ‘q2’, are placed **2 meters** apart. ‘q1’ has a charge of +3 μC, and ‘q2’ has a charge of -5 μC. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the force between them.

**Solution:**

Given**: – Distance**, ‘r’

**= 2 m**

– Chargeof ‘q1’, ‘q1’ = +3 μC

– Charge

– Charge of ‘q2’, ‘q2’ = -5 μC

Using Coulomb’s Law formula:

Substituting **the values**:

Calculating the force:

**The magnitude** of the force is **2.25 mN**, and **the negative sign** indicates that the force is attractive.

**Problem 2:**

Three **point charges**, ‘q1’, ‘q2’, and ‘q3’, are arranged in **an equilateral triangle**. ‘q1’ and ‘q2’ have charges of **+2 μC**, while ‘q3’ has a charge of -4 μC. The distance between **any two charges** is **1 meter**. Determine the magnitude and direction of the net force on ‘q1’.

**Solution:**

Given**: – Distance**, ‘r’

**= 1 m**

– Chargeof ‘q1’, ‘q1’ =

– Charge

**+2 μC**

– Charge of ‘q2’, ‘q2’ =

**+2 μC**

– Charge of ‘q3’, ‘q3’ = -4 μC

Using Coulomb’s Law formula, we can calculate the force between ‘q1’ and ‘q2’, ‘q1’ and ‘q3’, and ‘q2’ and ‘q3’. Then, we can find the net force on ‘q1’ by considering **the vector sum** of **these forces**.

After calculating the forces, we find that the net force on ‘q1’ is zero. This indicates that ‘q1’ is in equilibrium, as the forces from ‘q2’ and ‘q3’ cancel each other out.

By following **these steps**, you can confidently solve problems using Coulomb’s Law and gain **a deeper understanding** of electric forces and charge interactions. Remember to pay attention to **the unit**s, signs of charges, and **the vector form** of Coulomb’s Law when dealing with **more complex scenarios**.

**The Discovery and Derivation of Coulomb’s Law**

**How Coulomb’s Law was Discovered**

Coulomb’s Law is a fundamental principle in physics that describes the force between two charged objects. It was discovered by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, a French physicist, in the late 18th century. Coulomb conducted experiments to understand the nature of electric forces and charge interactions.

In **his experiments**, Coulomb used **a torsion balance**, which consisted of **a horizontal bar** suspended by **a thin wire**. At **each end** of **the bar**, he placed **small charged objects**. By measuring **the angle** of deflection of **the bar**, Coulomb was able to determine the force between **the charge**s.

**Coulomb’s experiments** led him to formulate the inverse square law, which states that the force between two charges is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This law is **the basis** of Coulomb’s Law and is applicable to **point charges**.

**Derivation of Coulomb’s Law**

Coulomb’s Law can be mathematically derived from the principles of electrostatics. Let’s consider two **point charges**, q1 and q2, separated by a distance r. The force between **these charges**, F, can be calculated using Coulomb’s Law formula:

**F = k** * (q1 * q2) / r^2

Here, k is the constant of proportionality known as Coulomb’s constant. It represents **the permittivity** of free space and is approximately equal to **8.99 x 10^9 Nm^2/C^2**.

**The direction** of the force is along **the line** joining **the two charges**. If **the charge**s are of **the same sign** (both positive or both negative), the force will be repulsive, causing **the charge**s to move away from each other. On the other hand, if **the charge**s are of opposite signs, the force will be attractive, causing **the charge**s to move towards each other.

Coulomb’s Law can also be expressed in vector form, taking into account the direction of the force. In vector form, the equation becomes:

**F = k** * (q1 * q2) * **(r̂ / r^2**)

Here, r̂ is **the unit** vector pointing from q1 to q2.

**The units** of charge, q, are typically measured in coulombs (C), while the distance, r, is measured in meters (m). The force, F, is measured in newtons (N).

Coulomb’s Law is widely used in various fields of science and engineering. It helps us understand the behavior of electric charges and the forces they exert on each other. By applying Coulomb’s Law, we can analyze and predict **the interaction**s between charged particles, which is crucial in many **practical applications**.

Overall, **the discovery** and derivation of Coulomb’s Law have provided us with **a fundamental understanding** of electric forces and charge interactions. It has paved **the way** for advancements in the field of electrostatics and has become **an essential concept** in the study of physics.

## What is the relationship between Coulomb’s Law and the concept of electric charges?

The concept of electric charges is crucial in understanding Coulomb’s Law. Coulomb’s Law states that the force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This law helps us comprehend the interaction and behavior of electric charges. By studying and understanding Coulomb’s Law, one can gain a deeper insight into the relationship between electric charges and the forces they exert on each other. To delve into the details of Coulomb’s Law and its applications, discover Coulomb’s Law at LambdaGeeks.

**Frequently Asked Questions**

**What is Coulomb’s Law in simple terms?**

Coulomb’s Law describes the force between two charged objects. It states that the force between two charges is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This is a fundamental principle in the field of electrostatics.

**How does Coulomb’s Law work?**

Coulomb’s law works by calculating the force between two **point charges**. **The law** states that **this force** is directly proportional to the product of **the two charges** and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. **The direction** of the force is along **the line** joining **the charge**s.

**Is Coulomb’s Law a universal law?**

Coulomb’s law is not **a universal law** as it only applies to **stationary charges**. It doesn’t apply to **moving charges** which are governed by **different laws** such as **Ampere’s law** and **Biot-Savart law**.

**How is Coulomb’s Law used in real life?**

Coulomb’s law is used in **various real-life applications** such as determining **the amount** of force between two charged objects. This is useful in electronics, where understanding **the interaction** between charged particles can help to design and troubleshoot circuits. It is also used in **electrostatic painting** and photocopiers.

**What is the significance of Coulomb’s Law?**

**The significance** of Coulomb’s Law is that it allows us to calculate the force between **any two charges**. This is fundamental to **our understanding** of electric forces and fields, and underpins much of **modern technology**, including **the design** of **electronic circuits**.

**Why is Coulomb’s Law similar to Newton’s Law?**

Coulomb’s Law is similar to Newton’s Law of Gravitation in that both are **inverse square laws**. This means that the force decreases with the square of the distance between the objects. **Both laws** also involve **a constant** of proportionality.

**What does Coulomb’s Law depend on?**

Coulomb’s Law depends on the magnitude of **the charge**s, the distance between them, and **the medium** in which they exist. The force between two charges is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

**How to solve Coulomb’s Law questions?**

To solve **Coulomb’s law questions**, you need to know **the charge**s of the **two objects**, the distance between them, and the constant of proportionality (Coulomb’s constant). You then plug **these values** into **the Coulomb’s law formula**: **F = k** * |q1*q2| / r², where F is the force, k is Coulomb’s **constant, q1** and q2 are **the charge**s, and r is the distance between them.

**What are the limitations of Coulomb’s Law?**

Coulomb’s Law has **several limitations**. It only applies to stationary or slow-**moving charges**, it assumes that charges are point-like and does not apply if **the charge**s are not point-like, and it does not account for **quantum effects**, which become important at **very small distances**.

**How was Coulomb’s Law discovered?**

Coulomb’s Law was discovered by **French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb** in 1785 using **a torsion balance**, **an instrument** that allowed him to measure **the tiny electrostatic forces** between **charged bodies**.

**Also Read:**

- Charles law
- Example of law of conservation of mass
- Second law of thermodynamics
- Boyle s law
- Laws of thermodynamics
- Parallelogram law of force
- Avogadro s law
- First law of thermodynamics
- Coulomb s law
- Third law of thermodynamics

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