Chromosome And Centrosome: 5 Facts You Should Know


In this article, we came to know about difference between chromosome and centrosome. Also get information different facts related to chromosomes and centromere.

Chromosomes are the small thread like structure which are present in the membrane bound nucleus mainly in the plants and animals cells. While centrosome is the cell organelle that are present in the cell help in the cell division process.

Centrosome are the part of cytoskeleton that play an important in the cell division. Centrosome having of two cylindrical structure that are present perpendicular to each other. Chromosome is itself replicate and separate at the time of cell division.

Are centromere and centrosome the same?

The centromere and centrosome are two different structure which do have different kind of importance in the process of cell division. Centromere is the constricted region of the chromosome which divide into short and long arm.

Centrosome present only in the animal cells while centromere is present in both animal and plant cell both. Centromere present in eukaryotic cells, it is responsible to movement of chromosome from parent cell to the daughter cell.

Centrioles are the barrel-like structure found near the nuclear envelop in the cytoplasm of the animal cell. centrioles are responsible or formation of spindle threads that help to segregates the chromosome during cell division. Centromere provide the location on the chromosome to the microtubule binding. It is the site for transporting duplicated chromosomes to daughter cell at the time of cell division.

Chromosome and centrosome
Animal cell from Wikipedia

Relation between chromosome and centrosome

The only relation between chromosome and centrosome is that both play an important role in the cell division. Centrosome provide the microtubule which help in segregation of chromosome and while chromosome itself involved the cell division.

Centrosome formed the microtubules which are attached to centromere of chromosome and pull apart the chromatid of chromosome toward the cell membrane. Chromosome is the whole part which divided in the process of cell division. Chromatid and centromere all are the part of chromosomes.

Difference between centrosome and chromosome

  • Centrosome is present in the cell cytoplasm usually a clear region near the cell membrane while chromosome is located inside the nucleus present in the highly coiled form.
  • Centrosome is usually present single in number while chromosome may be one or more in number depend on cell type.
  • Centromere made of two rod-like structure which is made up of protein tubulin while chromosome is made of DNA subunit which is highly coiled around the histone protein core.
  • Centrosome is present only in the animal cells but chromosome is the structural and functional unit of genetic information which is present in all the eukaryotic cells.
  • The main function of centrosome is formation of spindle apparatus during cell division while chromosome responsible for transmission of hereditary characters from parent progeny from to the daughter progeny.
  • Centromere formed during DNA replication during interphase. Chromosome is visible during the prophase of both mitosis and meiosis cell division process.

Where the centrosomes and chromosomes are located in the cell?

Centrosome is the clear region present in the cell cytoplasm near the nuclear envelop in the animal cells only. The chromosomes is present in the nucleus in all eukaryotic cells which is highly coiled.

Difference between centromere and chromosomes

Centromere join the two pair of sister chromatids to each other during the cell division. It is the constricted region present on the chromosome, divide the chromosome into a short arm and long arm.

During the cell division process of mitosis, spindle fibres formed by centrosome attached to centromere.

Chromosome is made up of protein and its basic unit is DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). It is responsible to transfer genetic information from parents to their offspring.

Difference between chromosome and chromatids

  • Chromosome is the most constricted part of DNA while chromatid is less condensed when compare to the chromosome.
  • Chromosome may one or two but chromatids consists of two DNA strands pair up with the centromere.
  • Chromosome is a thin, thread-like structure while chromatids is a thin but fibrous structure.
  • Two homologous chromosomes may or may not be identical but two homologous chromatids are always homologous.
  • Chromosome appear in the prophase sub-phase of M phase while chromatid appear in the interphase.
  • Chromosome responsible for transmission of genetic character from parents to offspring while chromatid involved in the metabolism and other kind of activities of the cell.

Conclusion

To wrap the article, we state that chromosome and centrosome both are important part of cell that has individual importance at the time of cell division. Centromere involve in separation of chromatid while chromosome are responsible for distribution of genetic information from one generation to the next succeeding generation.

Tanu Rapria

Hi..I am Tanu Rapria, I have completed my Master's in Biotechnology. I always like to explore new areas in the field of Biotechnology. Apart from this, I like to read, travel and photography.

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