CH3OH Lewis Structure: Drawings, Hybridization, Shape, Charges, Pair and Detailed Facts


CH3OH Lewis structure refers to a Lewis structure, which is quite different from other compounds in the organic chemistry. This article would disclose several facts about this Methanol through the representation of Lewis structure.

The matters, which will be discussed thoroughly in this article, are:

Drawing Lewis structure for CH3OH or Methanol

There are few fundamental steps of drawing Lewis structure, which are commonly followed. These steps illustrate the internal facts about the elements, which participates in the process forming a complex compound. These steps give idea about electronic transfer or share.

Calculation of the total valance electron present in the compound is the most significant and fundamental step as the valance electrons participate in electron sharing process.

The number of valance electron in Carbon is 4 and in each of the three Hydrogen is 1. One hydroxyl group contains 6 valance electrons from the side of oxygen and 1 Hydrogen there holds 1 valance electron. Therefore, the total count of valance electron present in CH3OH is (4 + 4*1 + 6) = 14.

The next step is to calculate the number of valance electron pairs (σ bonds, π bonds and lone pairs) in the compound.  The total number of electrons pairs has been found in CH3OH is 7 that is 14/2.  As in creation of each bond, 2 valance electrons participate.

Now, recognising the suitable central atom is the main task, which has been found as carbon ion CH3OH as carbon is the electropositive element and its hold greater valance electrons than other others.

The basic sketch has been constructed through these steps. After this calculating the number of lo e pairs and putting those in the right place completes the overall Lewis structure.

ch3oh lewis structure
CH3OH Lewis structure from Wikipedia

CH3OH Lewis structure shape

The shape of any compound cam be determined by the bonding features of the compound. According to VSEPR theory, the presence of lone pair affects the normal geometry of the compound.

Shape of CH3OH from Wikipedia

In Methanol, 2 lone pairs are present which are responsible for the bent like structure of the compound. In geometric shape, there is 2-centre atoms that are carbon and Oxygen. The geometric structure of the compound could be depicted as Tetrahedral but the presence of lone pairs brings forth a combined shape with bent tetrahedral.

CH3OH Lewis structure formal charges

The specific formula of calculating formal charges of participated atom in compounds is:

The formula of finding the formal charges of atoms is (valance electrons – nonbonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons).

The formal charge of carbon is (4 – 0 – (1/2)4) = 2

The formal charge of Oxygen is (6 – 4 (1/2)2) = 2

The formal charges of each of the Hydrogen is (1 – 0 – (1/2)1) = 0.5

CH3OH Lewis structure lone pairs

After drawing the whole sketch of the Lewis structure, the remained pair of electrons, which do not undergo bonding anymore, are denoted as lone pairs. There are certain number of lone pairs is present in CH3OH.

The oxygen atom present in CH3OH holds 2 lone pair as hydrogen cam hold only two electrons and the electrons in Carbon undergo covalent bonding. Other four-valance electrons of Oxygen are also considered as bond pairs.

CH3OH hybridization

Hybridization can also be predicted from the Lewis structure of Methanol. In hybridise state the centre atom of any compound gets a changed electronic configuration, which is predicted in Lewis structure as well.

The hybridised sate of CH3OH is sp3. The electronic configuration of carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2. Now, in the hybridised state of Carbon the place of electron changes from one orbital to another. . I one electron the s orbital goes to 2pz orbital and it gives sp3 hybridization to CH3OH.

CH3OH Lewis structure resonance

Resonance refers to the process of changing the electronic positions in a compound. in the case of this process the formula of the chemical con pounds remains intact but the place of bonds changes.

In CH3OH, the bonds are impact and there is no scope of changing the bonding structure. The σ and π bonds, present in CH3OH do not undergo resonance. Therefore, there is no resonating structure of CH3OH exists chemistry.

CH3OH Lewis structure octet rule

The entire periodic elements proceed electron sharing or transferring process to fulfil octet that is the last energy level of the element with the creation of similar electronic configuration like their nearest noble gas.

In CH3OH, all three elements share their electrons to fulfil octet. Hydrogen atoms need one electron to get similar configuration like Helium, Carbon needs 4 electrons therefore, it undergoes sharing with three hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom and accepts one electron for each.

On the other hand, oxygen needs 2 electrons and so it shares its two electrons, 1 with Carbon and another with hydrogen to get two electrons partially from these two atoms. In this way the atoms in CH3OH undergo reactions by maintaining octet rule.

Read more about Diastereomers Example

CH3OH polar or nonpolar

Polarity depends on the dipole moment possessed by the elements in any compound. the shape and electronegativity of the elements impacts on the polar nature of the compound.

CH3OH is polar in nature and it is due to the higher electronegativity of Oxygen than carbon and the presence of two lone pairs in the oxygen. Therefore, this element gets dominating power on the compound to increase its dipole moment.

CH3OH Lewis structure bond angle

Bond angle is valuable information, which can be obtained from Lewis structure of the compounds. Similarly, Lewis structure of Methanol also helps to determine the bond angle of Methanol.

The bond angle of CH3OH is 109. 5° in between the bond pairs. As the compound holds lone pairs therefore bond pair-lone pair repulsion is felt by the compound and it reduces the angle to 104.5°.

Question 1: What is the difference between CH3OH and CH3Br?

Answer: In CH3OH, there is an extra Hydrogen atom make the compound more acidic by nature. The presence of hydroxyl group distinguishes the compound from CH3Br.

Question 2: Why does Oxygen only hold lone pairs in CH3OH?

Answer: Except from Oxygen, other two elements that are Carbon and Hydrogen shares all of their valance electrons with each other. Therefore, only Oxygen possessed two lone pairs.

Question 3: Which factor is responsible for canceling out the non-polarity of CH3OH?

Answer: Presence of electric charges and asymmetrical structure of Methanol shows non-polarity. In symmetrical structure dipole-dipole, moment raises the non-polarity but CH3Oh is completely asymmetrical through geometric structure.

Sarnali Mukherjee

Hi.....I am Sarnali Mukherjee, a graduate from the University of Calcutta. I love to teach and share knowledge on chemistry. I have gradually gained interest in article writing since one year ago. I would love to acquire more knowledge on my subject in the future. Let's connect through LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/sarnali-mukherjee-921b59231

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