Ch3cooh lewis structure,Characteristics:13 Must To Know Facts

In this article we are going to explore ch3cooh lewis structure, characteristics and 13 essential facts regarding acetic acid.

Ch3cooh is a colorless liquid which has vinegar like odor. It is miscible in water. Its conjugate base is acetate ion. Ch3cooh is largely used for the manufacture of vinyl acetate monomer. The molecular weight of acetic acid is 60.052 g/mol.

Ch3cooh Lewis Structure Drawing

In the Ch3cooh lewis structure, central C atom uses sp2 hybrid orbital to form ch3cooh compound. In the exicted state C have 4 valance electron out of which 1 is used for bonding with C atom –Ch3 group, 1 is used in making σ bonding with O atom of –OH group and 1 is used to form σ bond with O atom.

The reamining 1 valance electron is used to form C=O (pi) bond. The carbonyl O atom form 1σ and 1∏ bond with C atom and remaining 4 electrons exist as 2 lone pairs. The O atom of –OH group form 2 σ bonds with –Ch3 group and H atom. Remaining 4 electron as ususal exist as 2 lone pairs on – OH group.

Ch3cooh Lewis Structure Resonance

The empirical process through which electron pair movement occurs from one to another atom i.e. electron pair distribution takes place by delocalization is termed as resonance and by this process the species which are obtained is defined as resonating structure.

In Ch3cooh  2 equivalent resonating structure are obtained. In these structure partial double bond occurs between C-O bond. The reason behind it is that unshared electron pair on O atom of –OH group is in conjugation with the empty ∏* antibonding orbital of carbonyl group.

Ch3cooh lewis structure resonance

Ch3cooh Lewis Structure Shape

According to VSEPR theory the shape of Ch3cooh is trigonal planner in which central carbonyl carbon is surround by carbonyl O atom, -Ch3 group and -OH group.

But C of –Ch3 group is tetrahedrally surrounded by 3 H and –C=O group and also O atom of –OH group is tetrahedrally surrounded by –C=O group, H atom and 2 lone pairs. Ch3cooh exist in planner shape so that the bond angle found in acetic acid is 1200.

Ch3cooh Lewis Structure Formal Charge

The formal charge on the atoms in Ch3cooh can be obtained by the formula which is given below:

Formal Charge (F.C) = No of valance electrons-(bonding electrons)/2- No of unshared pair of electron

Hence formal charge on carbonyl C atom in Ch3cooh=4-8/2-0= 0.

Formal charge on carbonyl O atom in Ch3cooh=6-4/2-4=0.

Formal charge on O atom of –OH group=6-4/2-4=0.

Formal charge on C atom of –ch3 group=4-8/2-0=0.

Hence formal charge on central C atom is 0.Each atoms in Ch3cooh has 0 formal charge making the whole compound is electrically neutral.

Ch3cooh Lewis Structure Angle

In Ch3cooh lewis structure, carbonyl carbon uses sp2 hybrid orbital to form bonds with –ch3 group and –OH group i.e. the angle C-C-O is 1200. The carbon atom in –Ch3 group is sp3 hybridized i.e. angle H-C-H should be 109.280.

The carbonyl O is same as that of carbonyl carbon which is sp2 hybridized (i.e. 1200) and also O atom of –OH group is sp3 hybridized (i.e. 109.280). As the central atom in Ch3cooh is titled at 1200 angle, the overall compound is planner.

ch3cooh lewis structure
Ch3ccoh lewis structure angle

Ch3cooh Lewis structure Octet Rule

In the Ch3cooh lewis structure we see that all the atoms fulfilled their octet. The C of ch3 group forms 3 bonds with H atom and 1 bond with C=O group.

The carbonyl carbon form 1σ and 1∏ bond with O atom and also forms 2 σ bonds with -ch3 and –OH group. The carbonyl O forms double bond with C atom and also contain 2 lone pairs. The O atom of –OH group forms 2 σ bonds with C=O group and 1 H atom. From this we see that all the atoms satisfy octet rule expect H which satisfy doublet rule.

Ch3cooh Lewis Structure Lone Pairs

The lone electron pairs are that valance electrons which are not shared between 2 atoms when they are connected through a covalent bond. It is also known as nonbonding electron pair.

The formula with the help of which we can calculate the lone pair of electron on the given atom of Ch3cooh is depicted below:

Lone electron pairs of an atom= electrons that present on the valance shell of the atom – how many are bonds formed by that atom.

lone electron pair present on O atom of C=O group in acetic acid= 6-2=4 i.e. 2 unshared electron pair.

Lone electron pair present on O atom of –OH group in Ch3cooh=6-2=4 i.e. 2 unshared electron pair.

Lone pair of electrons present on C atom of –C=O group= 4-4=0 nonbonding electron pairs.

These unshared electron pairs are shown in the lewis structure of Ch3cooh on C, H, O atoms as electron dots.

Ch3cooh Valance Electrons

To find out total valance electron in Ch3cooh it is must to know how many valance electrons present in C, H and oxygen atoms. C has the electronic configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p2 and electronic configuration of C atom shows that there exist 4 electrons.

Oxygen atom has the electronic configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p4 i.e. there exist 6 valance electrons in O atom and H has only 1 valance electron.Ch3cooh contains total valance electron which will be equal to the summation of all the valance electron of C, O and H atoms. Hence in Ch3cooh (4*2)+(2*6)+(4*1)=24 valance electron present.

Ch3cooh Hybridization

Hybridization means where central atom mixes its atomic orbitals such as s, p, d which are in different energy state to produce similar energy hybrid orbitals e.g. sp2, sp3, sp3d etc. Electronic configuration of C atom is 2s2 2p2 in ground energy state. In the valance shell of C atom we found that only 2 unpaired electrons present and to produce Ch3cooh, 4 unpaired electrons needed.

When energy is applied, 1 2s electrons goes into vacant 2p orbital making a total of 4 unpaired electrons in the valance shell of C atom. In the next step 1 O atom of –OH group, C atom of –Ch3 group and another O atom give their 1 unpaired electrons to form C-Ch3, C-OH and C-O bonds. O atom give their remaining unpaired electron to form C=O (pi) bonds.

In this compound central C uses sp2 hybrid orbital to make these bonds. According to sp2 hybridization, the geometry of Ch3cooh will be planner.

ch3cooh lewis structure
Ch3cooh Hybridization

Ch3cooh solubility

As Ch3cooh is polar in a nature, it is soluble in polar solvents like water, ethanol, methanol etc. It is highly soluble in polar solvents. As Ch3cooh is acidic in nature, it reacts with aqueous alkali’s, neutralization reaction takes place and water, and acetate salts are formed. When it dissolved in water, Ch3cooh dissociates in water to give Ch3coo- and H+ ions.

Ch3cooh ionization

Is Ch3cooh Ionic?

Ch3cooh is an ionic compound. This is for the reason that when ch3cooh disintrigates acetate and H+ ion are produced. When acetic acid is added water, it readily dissolves and aq. solution of Ch3cooh conducts electricity as there exists ions which is similar to an ionic compound.

Acetic acid has high boiling point like other ionic compounds. 2 Ch3cooh molecules dimerises through intramolecular H bonding, to separate them large amount of energy is required. This clearly mentioned that Ch3cooh is ionic in nature.

Is Ch3cooh acidic or basic?

Ch3cooh is an acidic compound. This is due to the presence of cooh group. In aqueous solution it gives H+ ion and ch3coo- ion. Like acidic compound it reacts with bases to give water and salt. Acetic acid reacts with base like NaoH, it gives water and sodium acetate (ch3ccoNa).

Is Ch3cooh polar or nonpolar?

Ch3cooh is polar in nature. A compound is said to be polar if its dipole moment is not equal to zero. In this compound due to presence of carbonyl group, C=O bond moment lie towards oxygen atom.

In ch3cooh, lone pair on O atom of -OH group is delocalized with ∏* antibonding orbital of C=O group and for this –ve pole creates on carbonyl O atom and +ve pole creates on oxygen atom of OH group. Hence there occurs separation of charge. That is why ch3ccoh in polar in nature.

Is Ch3cooh linear or Tetrahedral?

Ch3cooh has planner shape with sp2 hybridization of the central C atom. It is not linear or tetrahedral in nature.


By keeping in mind the above discussed facts, we conclude that acetic acid is a polar ionic compound in which carbonyl C uses sp2 hybrid orbital which makes the compound planner. Its pka is low so that it is a weak acid and also has a tendency to form water and salts whenever reacts with bases. Ch3cooh is a stable compound due to resonance.

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