Can Enzymes Change Shape: 7 Facts You Should Know


This article illustarte all around information on can enzymes change shape with different facts in detail.

The enzyme is one kind of biomolecule that acts as a protein and gives responses to catalyze the rate of the reaction, at which various factors are also responsible to affect the shape of enzymes in some undesirable situations.

What can cause an enzyme shape to change?

There are various factors responsible to affect the shape of enzymes in some undesirable situations. The enzyme is one kind of biomolecule that acts as a protein. The protein has a secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure similarly the enzyme also has a three-dimensional structure that is affected by changes in some physical factors like temperature, pH, concentration, etc.

Due to the rising in temperature the bond which holds this three-dimensional structure of the enzyme starts to denature while at low temperature the enzyme remains inactive. Sometimes the changes in pH like an increase or decrease can also affect the enzyme to change its shape. The pH can also affect the active site of an enzyme as well as charges on the amino acids that are present in the enzymes themselves.

Hence, the binding sites of the substrate to the active sites are hampered and the activity of the enzyme becomes slow. The pH and temperature both can alter the efficiency of enzyme activity by disrupting or denaturing hydrogen bonds. The concentration of substrate is also responsible for changing the shape of an enzyme.

Temprature affect enzyme activity Source:Wikipedia

How does an enzyme change its shape?

The shape of the enzyme is very important for all kinds of activity of the enzyme itself.The enzyme has a three-dimensional structure that is affected by changes in some physical factors like temperature, pH, concentration, etc.The amino acid sequence plays a very important role in enzyme specificity and activity.

The pH, temperature, or the concentration of substrate and enzyme can alter the efficiency of enzyme activity by disrupting the hydrogen bonds. Such factors are mainly responsible to affect or make some changing in the shape of an enzyme. If the active site of the enzyme gets changes due to the presence or the effect of such physical factors, the substrates are not able to bind. In this condition, the Enzyme not able to do any catalytic activity to increase the rate of reaction and not able to make a final product as well.

Enzyme shape change by induced fit model from Wikipedia

What happens when enzyme change their shape?

If the active site of the enzyme gets changes due to some adverse effect, in such a situation, the substrates are not able to bind, and immediately the enzyme will become deactive and no longer give any responses to catalyze the rate of the reaction.

The enzymes can also be deactivated by some other molecule. Mostly the enzyme gives the direct effect for increase the rate of reaction. Thus, the shape of the enzyme is very important for all kinds of activity of the enzyme itself.The amino acid sequence plays a very important role in enzyme specificity and activity.

The shape of an enzyme is first determined by the primary sequences, giving rise to secondary structure in the form of alpha-helices and beta-plated sheets.The enzymes are typically proteins their shape depends on the environment they were in like polar, nonpolar, pH of the solution, etc. Fewer enzymes undergo conformation changes after the binding of the substrate, thus, the shape of the enzyme depends on a lot of factors.

Can enzymes overall shape change without affecting their function?

The active site of the enzyme contains some charged chemical regions means is comprised of different R groups. The overall shape of enzyme molecules is often globular or round. If the enzyme’s entire shape changes then it will affect function. because the enzymes are not able to do any catalytic activity in such a situation.

The enzyme has a direct effect on its catalytic efficiency. If the active site of the enzyme gets changes due to some adverse effect, in such a situation, the substrates are not able to bind. Normally the substrate fits into the active site just like a lock and key. The enzymes are specific for their work. Enzyme only catalyzes the reaction. once it catalyzes the reaction, the product will release from the active site and the enzyme is free to act on more substrate molecules.

Catalytic site from Wikipedia

What is it called when an enzyme changes shape?

When the enzyme changes its shape is called induced fit. Enzyme is one kind of biomolecules that act as a protein and help to catalyse the rate of biochemical reaction.Enzymes achieve generally by providing a binding pocket that has shape and partial charges in positions. The binding pocket is called the binding site. During the induced fit enzyme, the shape of the binding site changes as the substrate bind, and it is the changed shape that matches the intermediate.

Simply, the enzyme molds itself to the substrate molecule.The enzyme and substrate interaction is very specific for each other.The induced-fit theory explains the specificity of the enzyme. According to this theory, when a suitable substrate approaches the active site of the enzyme and forms an enzyme-substrate complex, the substrate induces some conformational changes in the enzyme.

can enzymes change shape example
Induced fit model from Wikimedia.org

What can affect the shape of an enzyme molecule?

The four important factors that affect the enzyme shape and their activity are:

  1. Temperature
  2. pH
  3. Substrate concentration
  4. Enzyme concentration

The enzymes are proteins, that’s why they are very sensitive to their surrounding, and each enzyme can be specific and most effective at temperature and pH value. Lower temperatures slow down the reaction rate while higher temperatures increase the rate. The chemicals bond holding the protein together and start to begin breakdown until destroyed and denature.

Effect of pH on enzyme Source:Wikipedia

Similarly, pH also disrupts the chemical bond of proteins.The enzymes are also subject to competitive inhibition which means some other molecule that blacking the active site or prevents the reaction. reaction.The inhibitors can also bind to the various site of an enzyme for chage their functions and shape.

Conclusion

The enzymes are typically proteins their shape depends on the environment they were in like polar, nonpolar, pH of the solution, temprature as well as also depends on a other lot of factors.

Bhairavi Rathord

Hello, I am Bhairavi Rathod, qualified ICAR NET 2021 in Agricultural Biotechnology. My area of specialization is Integrated Biotechnology. I have the experience to teach and write very complex things in a simple way for learners. My LinkedIn profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/bhairavi-rathod-806993130

Recent Posts