CaF2 is a chemical compound with different properties in chemistry. Let us take a look at some facts about CaF2 lewis structure in detail.
Calcium fluoride, also known as CaF2, is an inorganic substance comprised of calcium and fluorine atoms. CaF2 exists as a single transparent crystal that is white in appearance. The molar mass of the Lewis structure of CaF2 is 78.07 g/mol. CaF2 has a density of around 3.1g/cm3.
CaF2 is solid, it is colourless and insoluble. Below is further detail about the CaF2 lewis structure, hybridization, the octet rule, valence electron, and several other facts.
How to draw CaF2 lewis structure?
Find the valence electrons in CaF2:
In this step, calculate all the valence electrons present in the CaF2 molecule. By using the periodic table, it will be noted that the total valence electron in CaF2 is 16. The complete electron pair is determined by dividing the valence electrons on CaF2 by 2, which is 16 / 2 = 8.
Determine the central atom in CaF2:
The central atom in the CaF2 lewis structure is Calcium with a 2+ charge. Fluorine on the other hand surrounds the calcium and has a negative charge. As CaF2 is not a covalent compound, its particular structure can not be drawn.
Determine the stability of octet by valence electron in CaF2:
- The calcium atom, which is the core atom in the CaF2 Lewis structure, is joined to the fluorine atoms by two single bonds Ca-F.
- It displays an incomplete octet since it is surrounded by just 4 bonding electrons.
- One electron is transferred from the central Ca atom to the two iodine atoms. As a result, 8 electrons surround them.
Final lewis structure of CaF2:
The final lewis structure of the CaF2 molecule is shown in the image below:
CaF2 lewis structure formal charge
Lewis structure stability is based on the internal charges of an atom or molecule. The formal charge is an indicator of this stability. Let us find out the F.C of CaF2 lewis structure.
CaF2 lewis structure has an overall Zero formal charge. The formula used to calculate formal charge is given below: F.C on CaF2 lewis structure = The valence electron on CaF2 atoms – Non-bonded electrons on CaF2 atoms -½ of bonded electrons on CaF2 atoms).
The Formal charge table on CaF2 is shown below:
|Atoms involved in CaF2||Valence electrons||Non-bonding electrons||Bonding electrons||Formal charge|
|Central Atom (Ca)||2||0||0||(2-0-0/2)=+2|
|Outer Atom (F)||7||8||0||(7-8-0/2)=-1|
CaF2 valence electrons
The valence electrons, or outermost electrons of an atom, are released during chemical processes. Let us calculate the CaF2 lewis structure valence electron.
CaF2 Lewis structure has 16 valence electrons. The fluorine atom and calcium atom both belong to the 2nd and 17th groups of the periodic table. Their outer valence electronic configurations are Ca=[Ar]4s2 and F=[He ]2s22p5, respectively, and they each have 2 and 7 valence electrons.
- The valence electrons of Ca = 2*1= 2.
- The valence electron of F = 7* 2=14.
- Total valence electrons in the Lewis structure of CaF2 =2 + 14 = 16.
CaF2 lewis structure octet rule
The octet rule describes an atom’s tendency to create enough bonds to gain eight valence electrons. Let us check whether CaF2 satisfies the octet rule or not.
The octet rule is satisfied by both Fluorine atoms, but the central Ca atoms octets are not satisfied. Two Ca-F ionic bonds are created when the central Ca atom contributes its two electrons.
- It already shares four electrons with the assistance of two single bonds.
- Fluorine, therefore, follows the octet rule and is surrounded by eight electrons on the two terminals of CaF2.
- The CaF2 lewis structure thus displays entire octets for both Fluorine atoms in the image below.
CaF2 lewis structure lone pairs
Lone pair electrons are non-bonding or unshared electrons that remain in a molecule or compound after bonding. Let us find out the lone pair electron in CaF2.
CaF2 lewis structure has six lone pair electrons. CaF2 has 16 valence electrons in its structure. Each Ca-F bond requires four electrons, making it a pair of bonds. There are 12 free electrons on 2F atoms. Each F atom has three lone pairs, meaning it has six unshared electrons.
- Valence electrons (V. E) – Number of bonds / 2 = Lone pair electrons
- Lone pair electron in the central Ca metal= 2 (V. E) – 2 (Ca – F bonds) / 2 = 0.
- The outer F atom’s lone pair electron= 7 (V. E) – 1 (Ca – F bond) / 2 = 6 / 2 = 3 for 2F atoms, while it is equal to 3*2=6 for all other atoms.
- As a result, in the CaF2 Lewis structure, the 2F atoms contain 6 lone pair electrons while the centre Ca atom has zero.
CaF2 lewis structure resonance
Different skeletal forms are produced via resonance, which is the delocalization of lone pairs of electron clouds within a molecule. Now let us discuss the CaF2 resonance.
There is no resonance structure in CaF2. Because there are no lone pairs in the centre atom.
CaF2 lewis structure shape
Every molecule derives its shape or structure from its environment. Let us look at the structure of CaF2 lewis structure.
The Lewis structure of CaF2 is linear. The positions of all the Ca and F atoms are linear or on the same plane. Since the centre Ca atom lacks a lone pair, there is no repulsion or geometry distortion.
- In addition, when calcium fluoride occurs as a single molecule, it creates a quasilinear structure.
- Quasilinear = Resonate shape between linear and bent.
- One calcium molecule and two fluoride molecules make the compound CaF2.
- When it is in the dz2 orbitals and the dyz orbitals, it has a linear and a bent form.
CaF2 lewis structure angle
The bond angles of a compound depend on its molecular structure and shape. Let us discuss the angles of the CaF2 molecule.
CaF2 Lewis structure has a bond angle of 180°. The CaF2 Lewis structure is classified as belonging to the AX2 generic formula by the VSEPR theory of molecular structure.
- A stands for the central Ca atom and X2 for the two F atoms
- A and X2 are bound together.
- It, therefore, has a linear geometry.
- Bond angle = 180°(F-Ca-F).
During the hybridization process, orbitals are merged to create new orbitals with essentially different energies. Let us find out about the CaF2 hybridization.
CaF2 has sp hybridization because the Steric number of the Ca atom is 2. As a result, according to the VSEPR theory, a molecule with the steric number 2 is sp hybridised. There the rearrangement of its atomic orbitals takes place.
- Calculation of Hybridisation as 2 + 0 = 2, where 2 + 0 is the number of atoms linked to Ca.
- The Ca atom one s and one p orbitals overlap and combine to generate a new, similarly energetic sp hybrid orbital.
Is CaF2 solid?
Solids have a specific shape because the atoms are tightly packed and have a known mass and volume. Let us talk about whether CaF2 is solid or not.
CaF2 is a solid chemical. It takes the shape of a cube that is centred around the calcium molecules. The fluorite structure is another name for the crystal lattice in which calcium fluoride exists. It is a white crystalline inorganic solid as shown below in the image:
How and why CaF2 is solid?
CaF2 is solid because of the closed packing of Ca and F in tetrahedron unit cells. When the eight-coordinate Ca2+ ions are situated in a cube crystal surrounded by eight F ions. Four Ca2+ are coordinated to each F to form a tetrahedron.
Is CaF2 soluble in water?
Solubility is the maximum extent to which a chemical substance can dissolve in a solvent such as water. Let us look at the solubility of CaF2 in water.
CaF2 is not water-soluble due to the high electronegative nature of fluoride, the bonding forces between Ca2+ and each of the F– are very strong, and the F– crystals are closely bound by these forces. The strength of a few water molecules is insufficient to penetrate the barrier and disintegrate it.
How and why is CaF2 insoluble in water?
CaF2 is insoluble in water because of the tiny size of F, but highly ionic and has high lattice energy. HF development when soluble in concentrated mineral acids.
Is CaF2 polar or nonpolar?
The polarity of molecules understands by knowing their electronegativity, electron dispersion, and dipole of the molecule. Let us talk about whether CaF2 is polar or non-polar.
CaF2 is non-polar. Ca and F ions are arranged symmetrically. No lone pair electrons exist in the CaF2, which has a linear geometry. As a result, it is a non-polar molecule with a uniform electron distribution.
Why and how CaF2 is nonpolar?
CaF2 is non-polar because its centre Ca atom is joined to 2F atoms, which have the same electronegativity. Both F atoms have the same number of electrons, and the dipoles are made to cancel one another. CaF2 is a non-polar molecule as a result of its lack of dipoles.
Is CaF2 a molecular compound?
A molecule is made up of tiny molecules that are molecular compounds. Let us talk about whether CaF2 is molecular or not.
CaF2 is an ionic compound. The presence of two F atom molecules in its formula indicates the presence of molecular compounds. There are no covalent connections between the Ca and F atoms in CaF2, thus making it ionic.
How and why is CaF2 not molecular?
CaF2 is not a molecular compound because Ca2+ and F ions make it the insoluble ionic compound. Due to its ionic nature and the presence of ionic bonds, it is not a molecular entity. The majority of the fluorine in the globe comes from this salt.
Is CaF2 acid or base?
Acids and bases are substances or species that give or accept protons, respectively. The acidic or basic properties of CaF2 are briefly discussed below.
CaF2 is a basic compound. In water, weak acid reacts with a strong base. The resultant pH of the solution is greater than seven. The reaction of CaF2 is as follows: Ca(OH)2 + HF = CaF2 + H2O
How and why is CaF2 Neutral?
CaF2 is a basic molecule because the fluoride anion is basic in nature. On the other hand Calcium hydroxide is a strong acid. Thus, the combination of these gives rise alkaline solution.
Is CaF2 electrolyte?
When dissolved in water or other chemicals, electrolytes are compounds that transmit electricity. Let’s determine whether or not CaF2 is an electrolyte.
CaF2 is electrolytic. The activity of Ca is less than 10-3. It can be employed as a beneficial electrolyte in galvanic cells. In contrast to solid oxide electrolytes, it can be utilised for experiments on electropositive metals including U, Th, Na, and Mg.
How and why is CaF2 electrolyte?
CaF2 is a powerful electrolyte because it dissociates into Ca2+ and 2F- ions when it mixes with water. These ions move freely in the electrolytic solution in response to external electric fields. It can therefore conduct electricity.
CaF2 → Ca2+ + 2 F–
Is CaF2 salt?
Salt is a chemical compound made up of cations and anions, although it has no net charge. Let us check if CaF2 is salt or not.
CaF2 is salt because acid-base reactions often create salts. It is created when a weak acid and a strong base react.
Is CaF2 ionic or covalent?
Compounds with covalent bonds do not break, whereas compounds with ionic bonds do. Let us talk about whether CaF2 is ionic or covalent.
CaF2 is an ionic compound. It can split into two different charged ions. The CaF2 molecule lacks the covalent link. As a result, the CaF2 molecule’s bonds are easily brittle. Ca2+ and 2 F– ions are bound together by powerful electrostatic forces.
- Ca donates its two extra electrons from the valence shell to act as a cation, and F– accepts the electrons from Ca, completing the octet, and acting as an anion.
- Steps involved in the formation of ions:
- Ca: 2, 8, 8, 2 Ca → Ca2+ + 2e–
- F: 2, 7 F + e– → F–
CaF2 presents as the fluorite mineral, also known as fluorspar, which is a highly intense colour due to impurities. Six lone pair electrons and 16 valence electrons make up the CaF2. It is linear in shape, possesses sp hybridization, and has a 180 bond angle. It is an ionic, non-polar, solid salt that is soluble in water.
Read more about following Lewis structure