CaCl2 Lewis Structure, Geometry: 13 Facts You Should Know


In this article, we get to know about cacl2 lewis structure, shape, formal charge calculation, angle, octet rule, hybridization and its properties.

Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is a natural substance. Calcium dichloride or calcium chloride anhydrous are other names for it. It’s a kind of ionic compound. Calcium and chlorine make up this substance.

At room temperature, it has a crystalline pure white hue. It has a high water solubility. As a result, it has a hygroscopic character. It must be maintained in a tightly sealed container due to its hygroscopic nature. The enthalpy change of solution is really high. It has no odour.

How to draw CaCl2 lewis structure?

Following is the Steps Involved in the Drawing the Lewis Dot Structure of CaCl2

Step 1: Count all valence electrons available in CaCl2 in the first stage.

Calcium belongs to 2nd group and the valence electron is two.

Chlorine belongs to the 17th group and the valence electron is seven.

Total number of valence electrons available forCaCl2 to draw lewis structure was found to be

CaCl2 = 2+(7×2)=16 valence electrons.

Step 2: Calcium chloride is an ionic compound.

Calcium is metal and Chlorine is non-metal, as we all know. Calcium has 2 valence electrons and chlorine has 7. As a result, for every two chlorine atoms, calcium gives one electron. In this way, CaCl2 reached the octet rule.

Step 3: Calculate all atoms’ formal charge distributions.

To ensure stability, the formal charge of all atoms is determined. The formal charge is calculated by employing the following formula:

Formal charge = [Valence electrons (V) – Lone pair electrons (L) – Bonded pair electrons (B)/2]

In the CaCl2 structure, the charge of Calcium is +2.

Calcium ion exists as Ca2+ and chlorine ion exists as Cl, so it leads to the formation of CaCl2 molecule.

CaCl2 Lewis structure shape

Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional representation of the atoms from that a molecule was formed. Every molecule’s molecular geometry is critical because it offers information about the compound’s polarity, reactivity, and phase of matter, colour, magnetism, biological activities, and other physical and chemical characteristics.

The form of the CaCl2 molecule is linear. The molecule of calcium chloride has two Ca-Cl bonds and no lone pair.

The VSEPR theory may also be used to calculate the geometry and form of the CaCl2 molecule. We may utilise the AXN technique for this.

The CaCl2 molecule is denoted by the letter AXN:

1. The centre atom is denoted by the letter A. Calcium is the core atom of the CaCl2 molecule. A = Calcium, for example.

2. The bound atoms to the centre atom are represented by X. Two chlorine atoms are linked to the core element Calcium in the CaCl2 molecule. As a result, X = 2

3. A lone pair of electrons on a central atom is represented by N. Calcium’s core atom contains no lone pair of electrons.

As a result, CaCl2‘s general formula AXN becomes AX2N.

If a molecule has an AX2N formula, it possesses linear molecular geometry and linear electron geometry, according to VSEPR theory.

Simple Structure of CaCl2 from wikipedia

CaCl2 Lewis structure formal charge

By applying the below formula, find the formal charge on the calcium atom in the CaCl2 molecule:

CaCl2 molecule’s formal charge on the calcium atom = (V. E (Ca) – L.E (Ca – 1/2 (B.E))

V.E (Ca) = the calcium atom in the CaCl2 molecule has a valence electron.

L.E (Ca) = In the CaCl2 molecule, lone pairs of electrons in the calcium atom.

B.E = In the CaCl2 molecule, the Ca atom has a bond pair electron.

The CaCl2 molecule contains 2 valence electrons, zero lone pair electrons, and 4 bonding electrons in the calcium atom (two single bonds coupled to chlorines). In the above formula, enter these values for the calcium atom.

Formal charge on calcium atom of CaCl2 molecule = (2- 0-(4/2)) =0

The formal charge on the central calcium atom in the Lewis structure of CaCl2 is zero.

CaCl2 Lewis structure angle

The bond angle of calcium chloride is 180 degrees. The calcium chloride molecule has two electron-rich areas (two Ca-Cl bonds and zero lone pair of electrons on Ca atom). The geometry of the CaCl2 molecule is linear due to these two electron rich areas, and so the 180° bond angle is generated.

CaCl2 hybridization

Because it possesses two sigma bonds (Ca-Cl) and no lone pairs of electrons on the Calcium atom, Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) shows sp hybridization. The steric number is 2, denoted that sp hybridization has taken place.

CaCl2 Lewis structure lone pairs

The center calcium atom of CaCl2 has no lone pairs of electrons

CaCl2 Lewis structure octet rule

The octet rule describes the urgency or propensity of each atom to have 8 electrons on its valence shell by losing, gaining, or exchanging electrons. By obtaining, shedding, or exchanging electrons, the atoms adopt the electronic configuration of the closest noble gas.

Is CaCl2 polar or non-polar?

The dipole moment of a molecule shows its polarity. The product of the magnitude of the charges and the distance between the centres of positive and negative charges indicates the dipole moment. When the atoms around the centre atom are arranged asymmetrically, the molecule generates a dipole moment. CaCl2 is an ionic compound formed from metal and non-metal, as we all know. Chlorine is a non-metal, while calcium is a metal. As a result, electrons cannot be shared, but calcium can transfer electrons to each of the two chlorine atoms. As a result, CaCl2 has a nonpolar polarity.

CaCl2 solubility

It’s an inorganic substance. At normal temperature, it is a white crystalline solid. CaCl2 is a salt that dissolves well in water.

Is CaCl2 soluble in water?

It’s an inorganic substance. At normal temperature, it is a white crystalline solid. CaCl2 is a salt that dissolves well in water.

Is CaCl2 acidic or basic?

CaCl2 is a salt of HCl, a strong acid, and Ca(OH)2, a strong base. When dissolved in water, it creates a neutral solution.

Is CaCl2 ionic?

In nature, calcium chloride is an ionic compound. In calcium chloride, the calcium atoms give up an electron to each chlorine atom, resulting in Ca2+ ions and Cl ions.

Conclusion:

In the above article, we studied about how to draw Lewis structure of Calcium Chloride, Geometry, Calculation of formal charge, angle, the role of octet rule, hybridization and its properties like solubility, acidity, polarity, etc.

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