Boiling Point of Ethane: A Comprehensive Examination

The boiling point of ethane is an important characteristic of this compound. Ethane is a hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C2H6, consisting of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. It is a colorless and odorless gas at room temperature and pressure. The boiling point of ethane is -88.6 degrees Celsius (-127.5 degrees Fahrenheit), which means that it will convert from a liquid to a gas state at this temperature. This low boiling point makes ethane useful in various applications, such as as a fuel for heating and cooking, as well as in the production of plastics and chemicals.

Key Takeaways

Here are some key takeaways about the boiling point of ethane:

Boiling Point
-88.6°C
-127.5°F

Understanding the Basics: Ethane and Its Properties

Definition of Ethane

Ethane is a hydrocarbon compound that consists of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. It is a colorless and odorless gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethane is an important component of natural gas and is commonly used as a fuel for heating and cooking.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Ethane

Ethane has several physical and chemical properties that make it unique. Let’s take a closer look at these properties:

Physical Characteristics of Ethane:

  • Molecular Structure: Ethane has a linear molecular structure, with the two carbon atoms bonded together by a single bond and each carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms.
  • State at Room Temperature: Ethane is a gas at room temperature and pressure. It has a boiling point of -128.2 degrees Celsius and a melting point of -182.8 degrees Celsius.
  • Phase Change: Ethane undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid when it is cooled below its boiling point. Conversely, it changes from a liquid to a gas when heated above its boiling point.
  • Vapor Pressure: Ethane has a relatively low vapor pressure, which means it tends to evaporate slowly at normal temperatures.

Chemical Properties of Ethane:

  • Reactivity: Ethane is relatively unreactive under normal conditions. However, it can undergo combustion reactions in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
  • Transition Temperature: Ethane has a critical temperature of 32.17 degrees Celsius, above which it cannot be liquefied by increasing pressure alone.
  • Heat of Vaporization: The heat of vaporization of ethane is the amount of energy required to convert one mole of ethane from a liquid to a gas at its boiling point. It is an important parameter in thermodynamics calculations.
  • Boiling Point Elevation: Ethane exhibits a boiling point elevation when dissolved in a non-volatile solvent. This phenomenon is due to the decrease in vapor pressure caused by the presence of the solute.
  • Volatility: Ethane is highly volatile, meaning it readily evaporates into the air. This property makes it useful as a fuel for various applications.

The Boiling Point of Ethane

What is the Boiling Point of Ethane?

The boiling point of a substance refers to the temperature at which it changes from a liquid to a gas. In the case of ethane, a hydrocarbon compound with the molecular formula C2H6, the boiling point is an important physical characteristic. Ethane is a colorless and odorless gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Its boiling point is influenced by various factors, including molecular structure, pressure, and intermolecular forces.

Factors Influencing the Boiling Point of Ethane

The boiling point of ethane is primarily determined by the strength of the intermolecular forces between its molecules. Ethane molecules are held together by weak London dispersion forces, which arise from temporary fluctuations in electron distribution. These forces increase with the size and shape of the molecules, as well as the number of electrons present. Therefore, larger hydrocarbon molecules tend to have higher boiling points than smaller ones.

Additionally, the boiling point of ethane can be affected by the presence of impurities or other substances. For example, adding a non-volatile solute to ethane can raise its boiling point through a phenomenon known as boiling point elevation. This occurs because the solute particles disrupt the intermolecular forces between ethane molecules, making it more difficult for them to escape the liquid phase and enter the gas phase.

Boiling Point of Ethane at Different Pressures

The boiling point of ethane can also vary with changes in pressure. As pressure increases, the boiling point of ethane increases as well. This is because higher pressure compresses the gas, making it more difficult for the molecules to escape the liquid phase. Conversely, decreasing the pressure lowers the boiling point of ethane, as it reduces the resistance for the molecules to transition from the liquid to the gas phase.

To illustrate the relationship between boiling point and pressure, here is a table showing the boiling point of ethane at different pressures:

Pressure (atm)Boiling Point (°C)
1-88.6
2-42.1
3-32.7
4-26.9
5-22.1

As seen from the table, as the pressure increases, the boiling point of ethane also increases. This relationship is consistent with the general behavior of most substances.

Understanding the boiling point of ethane is essential in various fields, including chemistry, thermodynamics, and engineering. It helps in determining the conditions required for phase changes, such as the conversion of ethane from a gas to a liquid or vice versa. Additionally, knowledge of the boiling point is crucial for designing and optimizing processes involving ethane, such as distillation and separation techniques.

Comparison of Boiling Points: Ethane and Other Compounds

Boiling Point of Ethane vs Ethene

When comparing the boiling points of ethane and ethene, it is important to consider their molecular structures. Ethane (C2H6) is an alkane with a linear structure, while ethene (C2H4) is an alkene with a double bond between the carbon atoms. This difference in structure leads to variations in their boiling points.

Ethane, being a saturated hydrocarbon, has weaker intermolecular forces compared to ethene. As a result, ethane molecules require less energy to break the intermolecular bonds and transition from a liquid to a gas phase. Therefore, ethane has a lower boiling point compared to ethene.

The boiling point of ethane is approximately -88.6 degrees Celsius (-127.5 degrees Fahrenheit), while the boiling point of ethene is slightly higher at approximately -103.7 degrees Celsius (-154.7 degrees Fahrenheit). This difference in boiling points can be attributed to the stronger intermolecular forces present in ethene due to the presence of the double bond.

Boiling Point of Ethane vs Ethanol

Ethanol (C2H5OH), commonly known as alcohol, is another compound that can be compared to ethane in terms of boiling point. Ethanol is a polar molecule due to the presence of the hydroxyl group (-OH), which gives it stronger intermolecular forces compared to ethane.

The boiling point of ethanol is significantly higher than that of ethane. Ethanol boils at approximately 78.4 degrees Celsius (173.1 degrees Fahrenheit). The presence of hydrogen bonding between ethanol molecules contributes to the higher boiling point by requiring more energy to break these intermolecular forces.

In contrast, ethane lacks the polar functional group found in ethanol, resulting in weaker intermolecular forces. This allows ethane to boil at a much lower temperature compared to ethanol.

Boiling Point of Ethane vs Propane

Propane (C3H8) is another hydrocarbon that can be compared to ethane in terms of boiling point. Propane has a similar molecular structure to ethane, with an additional carbon atom in its chain.

The boiling point of propane is higher than that of ethane. Propane boils at approximately -42.1 degrees Celsius (-43.8 degrees Fahrenheit). The increased molecular size and surface area of propane contribute to stronger intermolecular forces, requiring more energy to transition from a liquid to a gas phase.

In comparison, ethane has a lower boiling point due to its smaller molecular size and weaker intermolecular forces. Ethane boils at approximately -88.6 degrees Celsius (-127.5 degrees Fahrenheit).

Ethane’s Boiling Point in Different Units of Measurement

Boiling Point of Ethane in Celsius

Ethane, a hydrocarbon compound with the molecular formula C2H6, undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid when its temperature reaches its boiling point. The boiling point of ethane in Celsius is approximately -88.6 degrees Celsius. At this temperature, ethane transitions from its gaseous state to a liquid state.

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which its vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure. In the case of ethane, when the temperature drops below -88.6 degrees Celsius, it condenses into a liquid due to the decrease in vapor pressure. This phase change is accompanied by the release of heat energy, known as the heat of vaporization.

Boiling Point of Ethane in Kelvin

The boiling point of ethane can also be expressed in Kelvin, which is the absolute temperature scale. To convert the boiling point of ethane from Celsius to Kelvin, we add 273.15 to the Celsius value. Therefore, the boiling point of ethane in Kelvin is approximately 184.55 Kelvin.

By understanding the boiling point of ethane in different units of measurement, we can gain insights into its physical characteristics and behavior under certain conditions. The boiling point is an essential property to consider when studying the phase change of ethane from a gas to a liquid.

If you have any questions or need further clarification on the topic of ethane’s boiling point or any other related concepts, feel free to post your query. Our experts are here to help you quickly grasp the core concepts and learn in detail about the subject matter.

Why Does Ethane Have a Low Boiling Point?

Ethane, a hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C2H6, exhibits a relatively low boiling point compared to other compounds. This can be attributed to its unique molecular structure and the intermolecular forces at play.

The Molecular Structure of Ethane

Ethane consists of two carbon atoms bonded together in a straight chain, with each carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms. This linear structure allows for efficient packing of the molecules, resulting in weaker intermolecular forces.

Intermolecular Forces in Ethane

The intermolecular forces in ethane are primarily van der Waals forces, specifically London dispersion forces. These forces arise from temporary fluctuations in electron distribution within the molecules, creating temporary dipoles. In ethane, the relatively small size of the molecule and the absence of any polar bonds limit the strength of these intermolecular forces.

Due to the weak intermolecular forces, ethane molecules are easily separated from one another, resulting in a low boiling point. When the temperature of ethane is increased, the kinetic energy of the molecules also increases. At the boiling point, the kinetic energy overcomes the intermolecular forces, causing the ethane molecules to transition from a liquid phase to a gaseous phase.

The boiling point of ethane is influenced by factors such as pressure and the presence of impurities. Increasing the pressure raises the boiling point, as it enhances the intermolecular forces and makes it more difficult for the molecules to escape into the gas phase. Conversely, impurities can lower the boiling point by disrupting the intermolecular forces.

Melting Point of Ethane

What is the Melting Point of Ethane?

The melting point of ethane is the temperature at which it changes from a solid to a liquid state. Ethane is a hydrocarbon compound with the molecular formula C2H6. It is a colorless and odorless gas at room temperature and pressure. However, when the temperature is lowered below its melting point, ethane transitions into a liquid state.

The melting point of ethane is -182.8 degrees Celsius or -297 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature, the intermolecular forces holding the ethane molecules together in a solid lattice are overcome, allowing the substance to transition into a liquid phase. It is important to note that the melting point of ethane is significantly lower than that of water, which is 0 degrees Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit.

Comparison: Melting Point of Ethane and Methane

When comparing the melting points of ethane and methane, another hydrocarbon compound, we can observe some interesting differences. Methane, with the molecular formula CH4, is also a colorless and odorless gas at room temperature and pressure. However, its melting point is even lower than that of ethane.

The melting point of methane is -182.5 degrees Celsius or -296.5 degrees Fahrenheit, which is only slightly higher than the melting point of ethane. This can be attributed to the difference in molecular structure and intermolecular forces between the two compounds. Despite the similarities in their physical characteristics, such as being gases at room temperature, the slight variation in melting points reflects the unique properties of each compound.

Melting Point of Ethane and Propane

Propane, another hydrocarbon compound with the molecular formula C3H8, also exhibits a different melting point compared to ethane. Propane is commonly used as a fuel and is often stored in pressurized containers. Its melting point is -187.7 degrees Celsius or -305.9 degrees Fahrenheit, which is lower than both ethane and methane.

The variation in melting points among these hydrocarbon compounds can be attributed to their molecular structures and the strength of the intermolecular forces present. As the number of carbon atoms in the compound increases, the intermolecular forces become stronger, resulting in higher melting points.

How Does the Boiling Point of Butanol Compare to the Boiling Point of Ethane?

The boiling point of butanol explained: The boiling point of butanol is significantly higher than that of ethane. Butanol exhibits intermolecular hydrogen bonding due to the presence of the hydroxyl group, increasing its boiling point. Ethane, however, is a nonpolar molecule without such interactions, resulting in a lower boiling point.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the boiling point of ethane?

The boiling point of ethane is -88.6 degrees Celsius or 184.6 Kelvin. This is the temperature at which ethane transitions from a liquid to a gas under normal atmospheric pressure.

How does the boiling point of ethane compare to that of ethene and ethyne?

The boiling point of ethane is higher than that of ethene and ethyne. This is due to the larger size and increased number of electrons in ethane, which result in stronger London dispersion forces and thus a higher boiling point.

Why does ethane have a low boiling point?

Ethane has a low boiling point because it is a small molecule with only weak dispersion forces between its molecules. These weak forces require less heat to overcome, resulting in a lower boiling point.

What is the boiling point of ethane at different pressures?

The boiling point of ethane varies with pressure. At 1 atm (standard atmospheric pressure), the boiling point is -88.6 degrees Celsius. As pressure increases, the boiling point also increases.

What are the physical characteristics of ethane?

Ethane is a colorless, odorless gas at room temperature and standard pressure. It has a boiling point of -88.6 degrees Celsius and a melting point of -182.8 degrees Celsius. Ethane is also highly flammable.

What is the boiling point of ethane-1,2-diol and ethanedithiol?

The boiling point of ethane-1,2-diol, also known as ethylene glycol, is 197.3 degrees Celsius. The boiling point of ethanedithiol is 146 degrees Celsius.

How does the boiling point of ethane compare to that of propane and methane?

The boiling point of ethane (-88.6 degrees Celsius) is higher than that of methane (-161.6 degrees Celsius) but lower than that of propane (-42.1 degrees Celsius).

What is the melting point of ethane in Celsius?

The melting point of ethane is -182.8 degrees Celsius. This is the temperature at which ethane transitions from a solid to a liquid under standard atmospheric pressure.

What is the boiling point of ethylene glycol and water mixture?

The boiling point of a mixture of ethylene glycol and water depends on the ratio of the two substances, but it is generally higher than the boiling point of either substance alone due to the phenomenon of boiling point elevation.

What is the critical point of ethane?

The critical point of ethane, the temperature and pressure at which the gas and liquid states of ethane coexist, is 32.18 degrees Celsius and 48.72 bar, respectively.

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