BN Lewis Structure, Characteristics: 13 Must-Know Facts


BN lewis structure consists of 1 boron and 1 nitrogen atom. It is called boron nitride and is a very important structure. Its properties and various other parameters connected to it are explained in this article.

BN lewis structure exhibits sharing of electrons between 1 boron atom and 1 nitrogen atom. The stability requirement is fulfilled by sharing 3 electrons which results in a triple covalent bond. The octet stability of nitrogen is fulfilled; boron on the flip side is an exceptional case as an octet deficient species which have 6 electrons after sharing.

BN lewis structure is a very famous compound with so many structures and has a bulk properties associated with it. BN lewis structure is a thermally and chemically resistant compound and has refractory properties. The most important and notice-worthy feature of the BN lewis structure is its existence in various crystalline solid forms which are isoelectronic with carbon lattices. Each crystalline structure of BN lewis structure has various properties associated with it.

From a material science perspective, there are 4 different arrangements of BN lewis structure namely amorphous form (a-BN), hexagonal form (h-BN), and cubic form (c-BN), and wurtzite form (w-BN). Out of them, there is one amorphous form and the rest are crystalline. The hexagonal form is analogous to graphite with strong covalent bonds. Similarly, the cubic form and the wurtzite form are analogous to diamond and lonsdaleite.

The usages and application of all the 4 varieties of BN lewis structure are diversified and vary a lot. The h-BN form has the most uses where it is used as a lubricant in electrical engines and nano-suspension. It is also used in various industries like esthetics and skin care, electrochemical, optical, etc. The c-BN is used as an abrasive steel manufacturer. Apart from this, the a-BN is used in semiconductors and thermal CVD.

The process of drawing the BN lewis structure is really important to gather information about its other aspects. 

How to draw the BN lewis structure?

BN lewis structure comprises 1 boron and 1 nitrogen atom; To begin with, drawing it is important to calculate the total number of valence electrons. Boron (Atomic number = 5 and electronic configuration = 2,3) belongs to the 3rd group of the periodic table with 3 valence electrons. Similarly, nitrogen (Atomic number = 7 and electronic configuration = 2,5) belongs to the 5th group of the periodic table with 5 valence electrons. So the total numbers of valence electrons are 5 + 3 = 8.

Now after this finding the central atom according to the difference in the electronegativity is the next step. But in the BN lewis structure, there are only 2 atoms involved so the need to decide on the central electronegative atom is not required. But out of both the atoms nitrogen is more electronegative than boron and the electron cloud is aligned towards it.

Now there will be sharing of electrons where 3 electrons of boron will share 3 electrons of nitrogen which results in the formation of a triple covalent bond. Nitrogen will be able to complete its octet stability by sharing. On the other hand, boron will have 6 electrons in its valence shell after sharing which is an exceptional case as it belongs to the octet deficient species.

The last step in the BN lewis structure is to verify the reliability and authenticity of the structure drawn which can be fulfilled by calculating the formal charge of each atom involved in the BN lewis structure. Here the formal charge of both boron and nitrogen is 0 which confirms the existence of the BN lewis structure.

There is much other information associated with the BN lewis structure which is explained below.

  1. BN lewis structure resonance
  2. BN lewis structure shape
  3. BN lewis structure formal charge
  4. BN lewis structure angle
  5. BN lewis structure octet rule
  6. BN lewis structure lone pairs
  7. BN lewis structure valence electrons
  8. BN lewis structure hybridization
  9. BN lewis structure solubility
  10. Is BN lewis structure ionic?
  11. Is BN lewis structure acidic or basic?
  12. Is BN lewis structure polar or nonpolar?

BN lewis structure resonance

BN lewis structure does not exhibit any kind of resonance phenomena. Its canonical forms do not exist as delocalization of electrons and movement of bonds is not possible in them. Another reason for the absence of resonance in BN lewis structure is because of its bulk properties where there are different arrangements of BN lewis structure ranging from amorphous to crystalline forms.

BN lewis structure shape

BN lewis structure exists in a variety of shapes according to the arrangement in the three-dimensional environment. The most common arrangement of BN lewis structures in 3D space is hexagonal and cubic.

BN lewis structure 3D model

The hexagonal BN is the most stable one and is similar to graphite in molecular appearance where there is the presence of 2 hexagonal sheets which are held together by van der Waal forces.


hexagonal BN lewis structure

Cubic BN structure is similar to the structure of a diamond though it is not hard like one. Its 3D representation is in the form of a cube. It is also designated as one of the low-dimensional forms of boron nitride. Coming back to the single BN lewis structure then it is linear in shape with the triple covalent bond between carbon and nitrogen.

BN lewis structure formal charge

Finding the formal charge of BN lewis structure is crucial as they confirm the existence of the molecule. The formal charge is also responsible for explaining the electric distribution of the molecule. It can be calculated as:

FC = V – N – B/2

FC of B in BN lewis structure = 3 – 0 – 6/2 = 0

FC of N in BN lewis structure = 5 – 2 – 6/2 = 0

So this confirms the existence of the BN lewis structure.

BN lewis structure angle

BN lewis structure has many variations according to the arrangement in the 3D and spatial environment. The most common structures are the hexagonal and cubic structures. The bond angle of cubic structure in B-N-B and N-B-N is 109 degrees which is a tetrahedral bond angle.

Talking about the hexagonal arrangement of the BN lewis structure then it is in the 2D form where the B-N-B and N-B-N angle is 120 degrees which is the expectation of a perfect hexagonal ring bond network. So this proves that the arrangement of crystallized BN lewis structure is the major influence in deciding the bond angle.

BN lewis structure octet rule

The octet rule is one of the basic rules which decide the chemical reactivity of the whole periodic table with some anomalies. It says that every main group element should have 8 valence electrons to achieve stability. Except for noble gases no elements have octet stability and to acquire it elements share, lose and gain electrons with each other. 

Walking in the same footsteps, the BN lewis structure also fulfills its octet stability by sharing electrons. Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons and needs 3 more electrons to achieve stability. So it shares its 3 electrons with 3 electrons of Boron.

So the octet condition of nitrogen is fulfilled but Boron over here is an exception as it has 6 valence electrons and it is an octet deficient species where the presence of fewer than 8 electrons does not affect the stability.

BN lewis structure lone pair

Lone pairs of electrons are those electrons that have no role in bonding but they influence many other factors like bond angle and shape of the molecule.

As far as BN lewis structure is concerned there is the presence of a single lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom after sharing of 3 electrons with boron. So there is 1 lone pair of electrons in the BN lewis structure.

Presence of single lone pair on nitrogen in BN lewis structure

BN lewis structure valence electrons

Valence electrons are the outermost electrons in an atom. Due to their greater distance from the nucleus, they are loosely bound and have fewer nuclear force attractions. In the context of BN lewis structure before sharing there are 3 and 5 valence electrons in boron and nitrogen respectively. 

After sharing and the formation of the BN lewis structure there are 6 and 8 electrons in boron and nitrogen respectively fulfilling their respective stability criteria.

BN lewis structure hybridisation

Hybridization, also designated as orbital hybridization, is the mixing of two atomic orbitals which leads to the formation of new intermixed orbitals known as hybridized orbitals with different energies and shapes.

From the perspective of the BN lewis structure, we are completely aware of the fact that it has many shapes and crystalline forms according to their arrangement in 2D and 3D environments. The most common forms of BN lewis structure are hexagonal BN and cubic BN. Due to the difference in the arrangement; they exhibit variation in hybridization as well.

For example, the BN lewis structure can form compounds with sp3 and sp2 hybridization. The existence of sp3 hybridization is commonly observed in cubic BN and sometimes in the wurtzite BN. On the flip side, sp2 hybridized BN lewis structure is observed in hexagonal BN and rhombohedral BN which are analogous to the graphite-like structure.

BN lewis structure solubility

Elaborating on the solubility of BN lewis structure, it is insoluble in water and usually shows sublimation at high-temperature conditions. Along with that, it is also insoluble in most commonly used acids.

But the solubility of BN lewis structure is observed in various nitride salts and molten alkaline salts such as magnesium nitride, lithium nitride, barium nitride, strontium nitride, and lithium nitride which are used for etching of BN lewis structure.

The molten alkaline salts which show solubility with BN lewis structure are LiOH, KOH, and NaOH-Na2CO3. 

Is BN lewis structure ionic?

BN lewis structure as described in the article above is not a simple structure as it looks from the formula. There are many hidden layers in the structure in terms of bonding and electronic properties which is responsible for its increasing complexity in behavioral aspects.

BN lewis structure is partially covalent and is designated as a covalent crystal due to its network arrangement and the difference in the electronegativity of B and N atoms. In its hexagonal form B and N are both bounded by strong covalent bonds ( sigma state) however there is the presence of weak interlayer p bonding which exhibit significant ionic character thereby confirming its duality in bonding.

Is BN lewis structure acidic or basic?

The acidic or basic character of BN lewis structure is something that is not much clear yet. It is designated as a chemically inert compound which shows similarity with carbon compounds. It does not show a resemblance to other strong and weak acid or base classes.

Is BN lewis structure polar or nonpolar?

BN lewis structure is polar. Though it shows maximum covalent bonding, it is polar, unlike its analogous graphite. The reason behind the polarity of BN lewis structure is the atom boron and nitrogen.

Both of these atoms are of different electronegativity where nitrogen is more electronegative than boron. This difference leads to the inclination of the electron cloud towards the nitrogen atom which in turn generates a partial positive charge on boron and a partial negative charge on nitrogen.

Conclusion

In nutshell BN lewis structure does not exist in its molecular form and have different crystalline and amorphous 3D frameworks. These crystalline 3D frameworks are analogous to the carbon frameworks. The h-BN lewis structure is analogous to graphite and cubic-BN lewis structure is analogous to diamond. Due to this there is difference in various bonding and electronic propeerties.

Mansi Sharma

Hello, I am Mansi Sharma, a passionate scientific Academic writer. My goal is to bridge the gap between academic research and business development. Let's connect through LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/mansi-sharma22

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