Ba or Barium is an alkaline earth metal, soft in nature and is found in earth’s crust. Let us explain Barium in detail.
Ba is present in the same group as Sr and it is similar to Sr in terms of properties. When Ba is subject to a flame test, it shows a characteristic apple green color. Therefore, it can be distinguished from the mixture of metal. The color is observed due to electrons’ transition in the excited state.
Ba is a chemically reactive yellowish soft metal, which appears silvery grey and is not found in nature as a free element. Let us discuss some of the chemical properties of Barium like melting point, boiling point, atomic number, etc. in this article.
1. Barium symbol
Symbols are used to express the element by using one or two letters of the English or Latin alphabet of the chemical name. Let us predict the atomic symbol of Barium.
The atomic symbol of Barium is “Ba” as the name start with the English alphabet B. But B represents Boron which is the group 13th element, so we use the first two letters of the English alphabet of Barium to distinguish it from other elements.
2. Barium group in the periodic table
Vertical lines or columns of the periodic table are referred to as the respective group of the periodic table. Let us predict the group of Barium in the periodic table.
The group of Barium in periodic table is 2. Because it is an alkaline earth metal, it can easily form dications by donating two electrons. So, it is placed in the 2nd group as an element. In the Mendeleev periodic table, it is group 2 but in the modern table, it is placed as IIA group as per the precipitation table.
3. Barium period in the periodic table
A horizontal line or row of the periodic table where every element is placed by its last principle quantum number is called a period. Let us predict the period of Barium.
Barium belongs to period 6 in the periodic table because it has more than 54 electrons in the valence shell.
4. Barium block in the periodic table
The orbital where the valence electrons of the element are present is called the block of the periodic table. Let us predict the block of Barium.
Barium is an s-block element because the valence electrons present in the orbital is s. Ba also has p, d, and f orbitals but the outermost electrons are present in the 6s orbital.
5. Barium atomic number
The value of Z, known as the atomic number, is the total number of electrons. Let us find the atomic number of Barium.
The atomic number of Barium is 38, which means it has 38 protons because the number of protons is always equal to the number of electrons. For this reason, they become neutral due to the neutralization of equal and opposite charges.
6. Barium atomic Weight
The mass of the element is called weight which is measured concerning some standard value. Let us calculate the atomic weight of Barium.
The atomic weight of Barium on the 12C scale is 137 which means the weight of Barium is the 87/12th part of the weight of the carbon element. The original atomic weight of Barium is 137.327, it is because the atomic weight is the average weight of all the isotopes of the element.
7. Barium Electronegativity according to Pauling
Pauling electronegativity is the power to attract any other element for that particular atom. Let us predict the electronegativity of Barium.
The electronegativity of Barium according to the Pauling scale is 0.89, which means it is more electropositive in nature and can attract electrons toward itself. The most electronegative atom as per the Pauling scale in the periodic table is fluorine having 4.0 electronegativity.
8. Barium atomic Density
The number of atoms present per unit volume of any atom is called the atomic density of that respective element. Let us calculate the atomic density of Barium.
The atomic density of Barium is 3.5 g/cm3 which can be calculated by diving the mass of Barium with its volume. Atomic density means the number of atoms present per unit volume but atomic number is the number of electrons present in the valence and inner orbital.
- Density is calculated by the formula, atomic density = atomic mass / atomic volume.
- The atomic mass or weight of Barium is 137.327 g
- The volume of Barium molecule is 22.4 liter at STP as per Avogardo’s calculation
- So, the atomic density of Barium is, 137.327/ (22.4*2) = 3.06 g/cm3
9. Barium melting point
Changing to a liquid state from its solid state at a particular temperature is called the melting point of that particular element. Let us find the melting point of Barium.
The melting point of Barium is 7270 C or 1000K temperature because at room temperature Barium exists as a solid where it adopts body-centered cubic. It needs more energy to melt the crystal to liquid. By increasing the temperature, the elements can be placed in good arrangement.
10. Barium boiling point
The boiling point is the point when the vapor pressure of an element becomes equal to its atmospheric pressure. Let us find the boiling point of Barium.
The boiling point of Barium is 18970 C or 2170K because it exists in solid form at room temperature.
The Van der Waal’s force of attraction is low. Hence, high energy of heat is required to boil Barium. The solid form of Barium exists at room temperature or higher temperature than its melting point.
11. Barium Van der Waals radius
Van der Waal’s radius is the imaginary measurement between two atoms where they are not bound ionically or covalently. Let us find Van der Waal’s radius of Barium.
The Van der Waal’s radius of Barium molecule is 222 pm because this value is close to the value which is proposed by Pauling. Ba has a 6s orbital and it has greater spatial distribution and radius. Therefore, the radius of the element increases but relativistic contraction decreases.
- Van der Waal’s radius is calculated by the mathematical formula considering the distance between two atoms, where atoms are spherical in shape.
- Van der Waal’s radius is, Rv = dA-A / 2
- Where RV stands for Van Waal’s radius of the molecule of spherical shape
- dA-A is the distance between two adjacent spheres of the atomic molecule or the summation of radius of two atoms.
12. Barium ionic radius
The summation of cation and anion is called the ionic radius of the element. Let us find the ionic radius of Barium.
The ionic radius of Barium is 222 pm which is the same as the covalent radius because for Barium the cation and anion are the same and it is not an ionic molecule. Rather, it forms by the covalent interaction between two Barium atom.
13. Barium isotopes
Elements having the same number of electrons but different mass numbers are called isotopes of the original element. Let us discuss the isotopes of Barium.
Barium has 49 isotopes based on their neutron number which are listed below:
Stable isotopes are discussed in the below section among 49 isotopes of Barium:
|No. of |
|130Ba||0.11%||(.5-2.7) * 1021 y||ε, ε||74|
130Ba and 133Ba are radioactive isotopes of Barium and they can emit radioactive particles. Only 133Ba is synthetically prepared isotopes of Barium among all and the rest are naturally obtained.
14. Barium electronic shell
The shell surrounding the nucleus as per principal quantum number and holding the electrons is called an electronic shell. Let us discuss the electronic shell of Barium.
The electronic shell distribution of Barium is 2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6 10 2 6 2 because it has s, p, and d orbitals around the nucleus. Since it has more than 56 electrons and in order to arrange 56 electrons, it needs 1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,3d,4s,4p,4d,5s,5p,6s orbitals.
15. Barium electron configurations
The electronic configuration is an arrangement of the electrons in available orbital by considering Hund’s rule. Let us discuss the electronic configuration of Barium.
The electronic configuration of Barium is 1s22s22p63s23p6 3d104s24p64d105s25p66s2 because it has 56 electrons and those electrons should be placed to the nearest orbital of the nucleus s, p, and d orbitals and for the 1st,2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th orbitals.
16. Barium energy of first ionization
First I.E. is the energy required for the removal of an electron from the valence orbital of its zero oxidation state. Let us predict the first ionization of Barium.
The first ionization value for Ba is 502.9 KJ/mol because the electron was removed from the filled 6s orbital, due to the relativistic contraction of the 6s orbital. The energy required to remove an electron from 6s is lesser than the other orbital of Ba. Also, 6s has a lower shielding effect.
17. Barium energy of second ionization
Second I.E. is the energy required for the removal of one electron from the available orbital from +1 oxidation state. Let us see the second ionization energy of Barium.
The 2nd ionization energy of Barium is 965.2 KJ/mol because in the 2nd ionization, electrons are removed from the half-filled 6s orbital. When an electron is removed from a half-filled orbital, it needs more energy, and also +1 is the stable state for Ba. Therefore, the 2nd ionization energy is very high than 1st.
18. Barium energy of third ionization
Removal of the third electron from the outermost or pre-ultimate orbital of an element having a +2 oxidation state is the third I.E. Let us predict the third I.E. of Barium.
The third ionization energy for Ba is 3600 KJ/mol because the third ionization occurs from the filled 4d orbital. It needs more energy to remove electrons from the 4d orbital as the 4d orbital has a lower shielding effect so the nucleus attraction force is very high.
19. Barium oxidation states
During bond formation, the charge that appears on the element is called the oxidation state. Let us predict the oxidation state of Barium.
The stable oxidation state of Barium is +2 because it has two electrons in the s orbital. When the electron is removed, Ba can form a stable double bond and gain noble gas configuration. Therefore, it has a +2 oxidation state as the s orbital contains a maximum of two electrons.
20. Barium CAS number
CAS number or CAS registration for any element is used to identify the unique element. Let us know the CAS number of Barium.
The CAS number of Barium molecule is 7440-39-3, which is given by chemical abstracts service.
21. Barium Chem Spider ID
Chem Spider ID is the particular number given to a particular element by the Royal Society of Science to identify their character. Let us discuss it for Barium.
The Chem Spider ID for Barium is 4511436. By using this number, we can evaluate all the chemical data related to Barium atom. Like the CAS number, it is also different for all elements.
22. Barium allotropic forms
Allotropes are elements or molecules with a similar chemical properties but different physical properties. Let us discuss the allotropic form of Barium.
Barium has no allotropic forms because it does not show catenation properties like carbon.
23. Barium chemical classification
Based on the chemical reactivity and nature, the elements are classified into some special class. Let us know the chemical classification of Barium.
Barium is classified into the following categories:
- Ba is a heavier alkaline earth element
- Ba is a reducing agent
- Ba is also classified as reactive based on the reaction tendency towards carbonyl.
- Ba is more ductile and carries electricity as per electrical conductance.
24. Barium state at room temperature
The physical state of an atom is the state at which an element exists at room temperature and standard pressure. Let us predict the state of Ba at room temperature.
Barium exists in a solid state at room temperature because it has higher Van der Waal’s interaction. In the crystal form, it adopts body-centered cubic so the atoms exist very close to each other. The randomness of the atom is very high at room temperature.
The solid-state of Barium can be changed to liquid at a very low temperature, where the randomness will be decreased for Barium atom.
25. Is Barium paramagnetic?
Paramagnetism is the tendency of magnetization in the direction of the magnetic field. Let us see whether Barium is paramagnetic or not.
Barium is not paramagnetic, instead it is diamagnetic in nature due to the presence of two paired electrons in its 6s orbital. After the first ionization, Br+ is paramagnetic in nature because there will be one unpaired electron for the 6s orbital.
Ba is the s block alkaline earth metal that can form a strong base when reacts in water. The strong base can neutralize stronger acids like sulphuric acid.