Barium Carbonate(BaCO3) Properties(25 Facts You Should Know)

Barium Carbonate is an inorganic mineral compound. Let us discuss the different properties of Barium Carbonate.

Barium Carbonate, an inorganic carbonate salt of barium, is a dense crystalline chemical precipitated from barium hydroxide and urea solution. Barium carbonate has a refractive index of 1.676 and a specific gravity of 4.275. It is water-insoluble but soluble in the majority of acids (except sulfuric acid).

Let us explore in detail the physical properties such as boiling point, melting point, crystal structure, and chemical characteristics and reactions of Barium Carbonate.

Barium Carbonate IUPAC Name

The IUPAC Name (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) of Barium Carbonate is barium carbonate itself.

Barium Carbonate Chemical Formula

Barium Carbonate has the chemical formula BaCO3. Here, the oxygen attached to the carbon atom connects the barium molecule to a carbonate ion.

Barium Carbonate CAS Number

The CAS (Chemical Abstracts Services) number of Barium Carbonate for verification of the chemical is 513-77-9.

Barium Carbonate ChemSpider ID

The ChemSpider ID (free chemical structure database) for Barium Carbonate is 10121.

Barium Carbonate Chemical Classification

  • Barium carbonate is a highly stable compound thermally.
  • At around 1300 ⁰C, barium carbonate decomposes to form barium oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Barium carbonate, when reacted with calcium salts, forms calcium carbonate and barium sulfate that remains in the solution itself.

Barium Carbonate Molar Mass

The molar mass (mass of one mole of a substance) of barium carbonate is 197.34 g/mol.

Barium Carbonate Colour

Barium carbonate is a white solid.

Barium Carbonate Viscosity

The viscosity of barium carbonate cannot be measured as it cannot be obtained or transformed in liquid form.

Barium Carbonate Molar density

The molar density of barium carbonate is 0.0217 mol/cm3, and it has a density of 4.286 g/cm3.

Barium Carbonate Melting Point

The melting point of Barium Carbonate is 811 ⁰C (1,084 K) or 1,492 ⁰F. 

Barium Carbonate Boiling Point

The boiling point of Barium Carbonate is 1,450 ⁰C (1,720 K) or 2,640 ⁰F.

Barium Carbonate State at Room Temperature

Barium carbonate appears as a solid white granular powder at room temperature.

Barium Carbonate Ionic/Covalent Bond

  • Barium Carbonate comprises an ionic bond and multiple covalent bonds. The barium ion (the metal cation) is connected to the carbonate ion (polyatomic anion) via an ionic bond.
  • The covalent bonds between the carbon atom and each of the three oxygen atoms hold the carbonate ion together. 
Barium Carbonate Bonds

Barium Carbonate Ionic/Covalent Radius

The ionic or covalent radius of barium carbonate cannot be determined like any other compound since it can only be computed for a single atom.

Barium Carbonate Electronic Configurations

Electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons in orbitals that surround an atom’s nucleus. Let us find out the electronic configuration of barium carbonate.

The Electronic configuration of barium is [Xe] 6s2. The electronic configurations of Oxygen and Carbon are [He] 2s2 2p4 and [He] 2s2 2p2 respectively. It can be represented for one atom only.

Barium Carbonate Oxidation State

The oxidation state of Carbon in barium carbonate is +4. The oxidation state of 3 oxygen atoms is -2, and the oxidation state of barium is +2.

Barium Carbonate

Barium Carbonate Alkaline

Barium carbonate is a basic alkaline compound with a pH of 10 – 10.5.

Is Barium Carbonate Odourless

Barium Carbonate is an odourless inorganic compound.

Is Barium Carbonate Paramagnetic

Paramagnetism is referred to those compounds which are attracted by a magnetic field and have a permanent dipole moment. Let us see whether barium carbonate is paramagnetic or not.

Barium Carbonate is found to be an overall paramagnetic compound as all the atoms constituting the compound contain unpaired electrons making it paramagnetic in nature such as Ba2+ has two unpaired electrons for the 6s orbital.

Barium Carbonate Hydrates

Barium carbonate does not produce any stable form of hydrates as it does not directly bond with water molecules and is almost insoluble in water.

Barium Carbonate Crystal Structure

The crystal structure of barium carbonate is orthorhombic (sides are of unequal length). At 811 ⁰C, barium carbonate transforms from an orthorhombic phase to a trigonal R3m (β phase) space group.

Barium Carbonate Polarity and Conductivity

  • Barium carbonate is a non-polar compound. It has no electrical compression on the internal structure; as a result, it shows no effect on the polarity of the compound.
  • At room temperature, Barium carbonate is both thermally and electrically conductive.

Barium Carbonate Reaction with Acid

  • Barium carbonate reacts with strong acids such as hydrochloric acid to give barium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water.

BaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) —–> BaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

  • It reacts with nitric acid to produce barium nitrate and carbonic acid, which further dissociates to give carbon dioxide gas and water. This reaction is a double displacement reaction.

BaCO3 (s) + 2HNO3 (aq) —–> Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

  • Barium carbonate reacts with weak acid namely acetic acid to form barium acetate, carbon dioxide gas and water.

BaCO3 (s) + 2CH3COOH (aq) —–> (CH3COO)2Ba (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

Barium Carbonate Reaction with Base

Barium Carbonate is in itself a base, and hence, it does not react with bases. Instead, they react as bases to neutralize acids.

Barium Carbonate Reaction with Oxide

Barium carbonate reacts with titanium dioxide between 800 ⁰C and 1300 ⁰C to produce barium titanate powder and carbon dioxide gas. This reaction is a solid-state reaction.

BaCO3 + TiO2 —–> BaTiO3 + CO2

Barium Carbonate with Metal

Reactions between barium carbonate and metals do not proceed to give any product.


Barium carbonate occurs in nature as Witherite named after William Withering, who discovered it in 1784 from barytes. Barium carbonate is used as raw material in the electrical engineering and magnet manufacturing industry. It is extensively used to prepare ceramic items in the ceramic industry.

 Read more about Ytterbium Properties and Barium Uses in Different Industries.

Scroll to Top