Ba(oh)2 Lewis Structure,Characteristics:13 Must To Know Facts

In this article we are going to discuss the ba(oh)2 lewis structure and 13 important facts regarding its lewis structure and characteristics.

Barium hydroxide is produced when barium oxide is dissolved in water. It exists in white granular form. It is used as a dehydrating agent and used for the removal of sulphur from various compounds.

Ba(oh)2 Lewis Structure Drawing

Ba(oh)2 is formed by two elements i.e. one is barium atom and the other is hydroxide group. Ba is a congener of alkaline earth metal i.e. group (II) and oxygen is a congener of group 16 family. Barium has atomic number of 56. Its outermost shell electronic configuration is [Xe] 6s2. When it losses two electrons it gains the nearest noble gas configuration of Xe.

When Ba atom lost its 2 electrons Ba+2 ion is produced. In case of hydroxide radical, O atom is singly bonded with H atom i.e. it contains a total of 7 electrons. When 2 Oh radicals gains 1 electron each which are rejected by Ba it gets stable nearest noble gas configuration of Ne. Then Ba+2 and 2 Oh- ions are attached by columbic force of attraction and ba(oh)2 is formed.

ba(oh)2 lewis structure
Lewis structure of Ba(oh)2

Ba(oh)2 Lewis Structure Resonance

Resonance is an empirical method in which electrons moving from one atom to another by losing and gaining of electrons. Barium hydroxide is a neutral compound with zero formal charge (f.c) on it. As resonance takes place Ba(oh)2  breaks into Ba+2ion and 2 OH- ions.

Both barium and hydroxide ions are stabilized because both gains stable nearest noble gas configuration after resonance i.e. Ba2+ ion possess Xenon (Xe) noble electronic configuration and hydroxide ion acquires Neon (Ne) noble gas configuration, both the ions fulfilled their octet after resonance.

Ba(oh)2 Lewis structure shape

According to VSEPR theory ba(oh)2 has octahedral co-ordination geometry. In the crystal structure of ba(oh)2 6 Ba2+ ions are surrounding by 6 Oh- ions and 6 Oh- ions are surround by 6 Ba2+ ions.

For this reason both Ba2+ and Oh- ions have co-ordination number equals to 6. Because of this fact that ba(oh)2 has octahedral shape and acquires d2sp3 hybridization.

Ba(oh)2 Lewis Structure Formal Charges

In barium hydroxide overall formal charge on the compound is Zero. Ba(oh)2 ionizes to form Ba2+ and 2 Oh- ions. Barium has +2 formal charges which are cancelled out by 2 hydroxide -1 formal charge.

In the cubic crystal lattice structure of barium hydroxide 6 Ba2+ ions are surround by 6 Oh- ions and 6 Oh- ions are surrounded by 6 Ba2+ ions making the whole compound is electrically neutral.

Ba(oh)2 Lewis structure angle

As we seen from ba(oh)2 lewis structure, ba(oh)2 has octahedral geometry with d2sp3 hybridization and according to octahedral geometry the angle must be 900. Ba(oh)2 also possess the same bond angle which is equal to 900.

Ba(oh)2 Lewis Structure Octet Rule

In the lewis structure of barium hydroxide both barium and hydroxide ions fulfilled their octet. When ba(oh)2 is produced ba lost its two electrons from valance shell to acquire the nearest noble gas configuration of Xe which have 8 electrons in its valance shell (5s25p6) i.e. octet is fulfilled.

Hydroxide radical gains two electrons which is rejected by ba atom to acquires the nearest noble gas configuration of neon which also possessed 8 valance electrons (2s2 2p6). Hence both barium and oh radical fulfilled their octet.

Ba(oh)2 Lewis Structure Lone Pairs

When we see the ba(oh)2 lewis structure zero lone pair present on Ba atom and 1 lone pair of electrons present on hydroxide ion.

This is due to the fact that barium losses its two electron to form Ba2+ion which does not contain any lone pair of electron in it. But 2 Oh radical gains 1 electron each which is rejected by Ba atom and is converted into 2 Oh- ions in which 1 lone pair of electrons present on each Oh- ion.

Ba(oh)2 Valance Electrons

Firstly to find out the total no of valance electron in Ba(oh)2, it is important to find out the electronic configuration of Ba atom. The electronic configuration of Ba atom is [Xe] 6s2 and we see from electronic configuration of ba that there are 2 electrons in the valance shell of Ba atom.

There is 7 electrons in the Oh radical. The total valance electrons that exist on ba(oh)2 will be equal to the (sum of the valance electron of Ba atom and oh radical) i.e. equals to (1*2)+(7*2)=16. There are 16 valance electrons in ba(oh)2.

Ba(oh)2 Hybridization

When ba(oh)2 breaks down Ba+2 and 2 Oh-ions are formed. Barium hydroxide exists in a cubic crystal lattice structure. Both barium atom and hydroxide radical possess d2sp3 hybridization i.e. ba(oh)2 has octahedral co-ordination geometry.

In the crystal lattice structure of barium hydroxide each Ba+2 ion is surrounded by six Oh- ions and each Oh-ion is surrounded by 6 Ba+2ions. Hence both barium ion and htdroxide ion have same co-ordination number which is equal to 6.

Ba(oh)2 Solubility

In ba(oh)2 due to greater electronegativity of oh group and lesse electronegativity of barium atom it exists in Ba2+ and 2 oh- ions i.e. opposite dipoles are produced. As different dipoles created on Ba2+ and oh- ions it is a polar compound.

It is soluble in polar solvents e.g. ethanol (C2H5OH), dilute mineral acids like HCl, HBr, HF etc and also soluble in water. But it is not soluble in nonpolar solvents like acetone, ether etc. When barium hydroxide reacts with water it produces Ba2+ ions and hydroxide ions. This medium is basic in nature.

Solubility of Ba(oh)2 in water

Is Ba(oh)2 Ionic?

Ba(oh)2 is an ionic compound. This is due to the fact that ba(oh)2 disintrigates to give Ba2+ and Oh- ions when it dissolves in aqueous solution or in molten state. This is an essential characteristic of ionic compound.

It conducts electricity in aqueous or in molten state. This is because of the presence of Ba2+ and Oh- ions in both the states and we also know that ions carry current. Like ionic compounds ba(oh)2 is soluble in polar solvents for example water, methanol etc.

Is Ba(oh)2 Polar Or Nonpolar?

Barium hydroxide is a polar compound. This is because of the fact that in barium hydroxide both barium atom and hydroxide radical have difference in electronegativity and hence opposite dipole creates on barium and hydroxide radical.

Due to lower electronegativity of barium it acquires positive dipole on it and due to higher electronegativity of O atom Oh radical possesses negative dipole. As because opposite dipoles creates on barium hydroxide, it is an ionic compound with high dipole moment. Hence ba(oh)2 is a polar compound.

Is Ba(oh)2 acidic or basic?

Ba has greater tendency to loss electrons i.e. it has metallic characteristics. Ba(oh)2 is basic in nature. This is due to the fact that it is a hydroxide of a metal which usually basic in nature.

When we dissolve barium hydroxide in water, it dissociates in water to form Ba2+ and Oh- ions. We know from Arrhenius theory that the compound which gives Oh- ions in solution are alkaline or basic in nature.


By considering the above mentioned facts we can conclude that ba(oh)2 is a stable ionic compound. As it is an ionic compound it is polar in nature as well as soluble in polar hydrophilic solvents and ba(oh)2 is an alkaline hydroxide because it gives Oh- ions in aqueous solution.

Susanta Maity

Hi....I am Susanta Maity. I have completed my Masters from Vidyasagar university with a specialization in organic chemistry. I love to write complicated Chemistry concepts in understandable and simple words. Let's connect through LinkedIn:

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