ATP Synthesis Stages: Facts on Each Stages

ATP is more commonly called to be adenosine triphosphate and is termed to be a source of energy in the cell level.

The synthesis of ATP takes place in stages. The main source is glucose and the ATP synthesis stages are-

The structure of ATP has no link with ATP synthesis stages and has a triphosphate of nucleoside and has a base of nitrogen which is adenine and a ribose sugar and also a three bonded group of phosphate that is place serially. The process of photosynthesis in plants is done by having ATP converted from ADP for energy from the sun.

It can also be made by having the ATP synthesis stages and be made by the process of cell respiration in the cell mitochondria. This can be via the aerobic respiration that needs oxygen or the anaerobic respiration which do not need the gas. ATP is said to be made of adenine which is one of the four nitrogenous base and also has the ribose sugar that is a five carbon one and three attached phosphate being the alpha, gamma and beta.

ATP synthesis stages
Image credit-ATPWikipedia

The beta and gamma phosphate share a bond and this bond is seen to be much high in its energy and thus when it breaks they let out much energy to have the cell responded and the method triggered out. One example for this can be the maintaining of heartbeat that needs ATP. It also helps getting the fat synthesized and check the nerve impulse with heling some molecules in its movement out or in the cell.

Some of the organism like the firefly and the jellyfish use adenosine triphosphate as a source to make light. This is said to be consumed by the body via one of the three ATP synthesis stages that has the transport of ion, nerve impulse propagation, the chemical synthesis, contraction of muscle and the substrate phosphorylation. All these methods make the need and urge for ATP and create its high demand.

There are many aspect of the cell methods that circulate around the making of ATP and its use. It is vital to have it get into the brain and how the ATP synthesis stages use up oxygen and glucose in the life of aerobic and anaerobic and then link it to the bioenergy which help in great reactions in the cell. ATP are said to be a universal factor for energy exchange and connect the catabolism and anabolism but also fuels the method of it being mobile, active transport and contractions.

Image credit-NADPH-Wikipedia

The beta and gamma phosphates share a bond, and this bond is seen to be much higher in energy, so when it breaks, it releases a lot of energy, causing the cell to respond and the method to be triggered. This can be accomplished through aerobic respiration, which requires oxygen, or anaerobic respiration, which does not require the gas. It also helps in stress situation by sending calcium signal. Thus it is a signaling molecule as well.

The steps included in the ATP synthesis stages where the vital element is glucose and it takes three stages for it to get catabolized. In the first method while glucose in changed to pyruvate the quantity of it is less. Thus, pyruvate is then changed to acetyl coenzyme A that enters the Krebs cycle making NADH. This NADH is used by respiration that make proton in the mitochondria. The ATP synthesis stages are-


This is the very first phase in the ATP synthesis stages. This makes the use of glucose and starts the synthesis.

It gets to have glucose converted to pyruvic. This free energy that is released from this method is used to make ATP and also NADH. Glycolysis is said to be a ten reaction sequence which is held by enzymes.

In this ATP synthesis stages, the few of the mammal cell and the tissues are able to stay alive only by the energy that is made from glycolysis. It has the breakdown of the glucose that has six carbons into the pyruvate molecule that has three carbons and can be divided into two process being the preparatory phase and the payoff stage. It is the one method that do not need oxygen.

Among all the ATP synthesis stages, glycolysis is the one that is seen in almost all the species and thus is said to the oldest one or ancient pathway. There are reactions that take up this method and is parallel in pathway. The pentose path takes place in the oxygen free state of the Archean ocean and in the absence of the enzymes is said to be catalyzed by the metal. Mostly it is seen in the cytosol of the cell.

Image credit-GlycolysisWikipedia

This pathway has two of the phases called investments phase where there is a consumption of ATP and the other is yield phase where there is more of the ATP that is made and is originally consumed. This path is known for 100 years and is the combination of results for many tiny experiments that were needed to understand the path. It stared in 19th century in the wine factory. It is the very first step for cell respiration. This overall is seen in cytoplasm.

Krebs cycle

This is also called to be TCA cycle or the citric cycle and is a chain of reaction that is seen in the mitochondria.

It is seen to give oxidation as a result of acetyl CoA and releases carbon dioxide and atoms of hydrogen that shall later be used to make water. It is the second phase in the ATP synthesis stages.

It is termed to be the citric cycle as the first metabolite that is made in this method is the citric acid. It is also called to be the TCA and stands for tricarboxylic acid as it is not certain for the first product that is made being isocitric acid or the citric acid. But, now is it evident that the first one made is the citric acid yet the name has not been deactivated. It takes place in aerobic state.

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The molecules are high in energy like FAD and NAD and can only be taken back by its reduced form after they get to convert the electron to the oxygen molecules. This is the ultimate path that is common for oxidation of all the proteins, the carbohydrates, fatty acids and the biomolecules. The molecules from rest of the cycle and the path enter this method via the Acetyl CoA. The enzyme seen here are either in or out of the mitochondria. The Krebs cycle comes after the link reaction and provides the hydrogen and electrons needed for the electron transport chain.

It is mediated by the 8 of the enzymes and thus is a chemical series. It is vital in specific as it gives high energy and electrons or molecules to the electron transport chain for making of water and ATP. Pyruvate that is made at the end of glycolysis and is the first one to get oxidized and enter the Krebs cycle. In the eukaryotes it is seen in mitochondria while in prokaryotes it is in the cytoplasm. It takes place inside mitochondria.

This type of respiration is an ever-repeating cycle which produces ATP and gives off CO2. The ATP is a molecule which carries energy in chemical form to be used in other cell processes. It in simple words-

  • Two molecules of carbon dioxide are given off
  • One molecule of GTP is formed
  • Three molecules of NAD+ are combined with hydrogen
  • One molecule of FAD combines with hydrogen

Oxidative phosphorylation

It is the method where the ATP is synthesized and is coupled to have the electrons moved via the chain and link with oxygen.

This is the efficient part of the entire ATP synthesis stages and is vital. It helps in making of 36 molecules of ATP concerning per molecule of glucose and this is on being compared to two molecules of ATP made at the time of glycolysis.

Image credit-Oxidative phosphorylationWikipedia

There are free radical that is released at the time of the step wise oxidation between the FADH2 and NADH and the protons that is pump from the matrix of mitochondria across the inner membrane of it and into the intermembrane area. This pump creates a good concentration of proton that helps in having the imbalance between the intermembrane space and the matrix. There is a potential energy that is stored and there is a protein gradient made and is used to make ATP synthesized and phosphorylate the ADP.

It contains the transfer of electrons via a protein complex series and then resides in the mitochondria. As the electrons start the reaction at much energy the end is slow and this is also called the electron transport chain which initiates the release in energy that the protein harness to have energy decreased via electrons. A molecule of oxygen sits at the end of this cycle as the final acceptor of electron and then links with the free proteins to make water which is a good exothermic action.

ATP synthesis in chloroplast

TheATP synthesis stages for the chloroplast is seen in the membrane of thylakoid and helps get it synthesized.

It gets ATP from DP and the inorganic materials at the expense of having the gradient of electrochemical proton made by the light dependent flow of electron or via the light based action.

The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. ATP synthase is the central bioenergetic engine of all organisms and represents the smallest molecular motor, which was optimized in the course of evolution.

Image credit-ChloroplastWikipedia

Chloroplast is said to be one of the major site for ATP synthesis stages. Not all the stages take place in here. The chloroplast that are mature tend to have more of the ATP.  The ATP in a cell is mostly made from mitochondria and is active from the start upon inhibition. ATP is made by the electron flow along the transport path of cytochrome. As the electrons are being carried to the molecules the energy is used to make ATP. The reaction of ATP synthase requires delivery of protons, magnesium, ADP and phosphate, and consumption of formed ATP.

ATP synthesis in mitochondria

Most of the ATP that is synthesized at theATP synthesis stages at the time of glucose making is done in mitochondria.

This is done in the mitochondria and is the third step in the ATP synthesis stages calked the oxidative phosphorylation. It is a reaction that is complex and is powered by the protein curve across the inner lining of this organelle and is made by the respiration of it.

In order to understand the mechanism by which the energy released during respiration is conserved as ATP, it is necessary to appreciate the structural features of mitochondria. These are organelles in animal and plant cells in which oxidative phosphorylation takes place. There are many mitochondria in animal tissues—for example, in heart and skeletal muscle, which require large amounts of energy for mechanical work, and in the pancreas, where there is biosynthesis, and in the kidney, where the process of excretion begins.

Image credit-MitochondriaWikipedia

This organelle is called to be the powerhouse of the cell and the F1Fo-ATP synthase of this inner member here is made in bulk level of the cell ATP. It includes the conversion of the electrons from the inner space via the inner membrane and then again back to matrix area. This conversion of the electrons from the matric to the space leads to the substantial level of ph and then in between the two sides of the membrane.

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