This article mainly deals with various annual plant example present in the environment and its various characteristics, its effects in treatment etc.
The examples of annual plants are listed below:
- French Marigold
- Gloriosa Daisy
- Musk Rose
- Dusty Miller
- Swiss Chard
Annual plants grow in various geographical locations where the growing period and the seasons vary from time to time. Two broad classifications of annual plants are 1) Summer Annuals and 2) Winter Annuals.
In more details of annual plants explains that the sprouts from the seeds or bulbs of the plant grow to maturity and to complete their life span.
Further discussion of categories of annual plants are as given below:
Hardy annual plants–
Plants which persists in cool temperatures and freezing conditions are termed as hardy annuals. Those plants are mainly planted in early spring or at late winters. They are a classic example of annual plants.
Semi-Hardy annual plants-
This group of plants like petunia, calendula survives on moderately cool to freezing temperatures. They can be planted before the frost-free date and gives rise to color in its growing period.
Tender annual plants-
These plants do not survive in cold conditions until spring has passed. Eg; vinca, marigold and zinnia etc.
Summer annuals generally grow in the months where the summertime prevails, usually from late spring, the seeds of the annuals are being planted for gardening.
- Some of the examples of summer annuals are found are- Balsam, Cosmos, Gaillardia, French Marigold, Sunflower etc.
Balsam (Impatiens balsamina) is an annual flower which grows in mass, have more green leaves on the edges. The flower has a structure of a cup and generally deep pink or purple in colour. This plant is from the family of Balsaminaceae. Different parts of this plant serves an important use in treating burns, wounds, and other skin irritations like rashes, itchiness etc. Especially the flower is applied to burns. In Asia, this plant is used as a treatment to cure diseases like rheumatism and fractures also.
C. bipinnatus is a half-hardy annual plant belonging to the family Asteraceae. They are commonly known as garden cosmos or Mexican Aster. The flowers are medium sized, considered as ornamental plants and are found in the temperate climate. The varieties of the species are pink, purple and white. The branches in the stem are mainly covered by fine trichomes, the petiole is sometimes curved and the bottom part of the leaves are broad. The diameter of the inflorescences is mainly 5-7 cm and contains tubular flowers surrounded by bracts.
This plant serves as a medicinal plant in Brazil, Mexico for treating Malaria, it can be used as infused oil because of its anti- inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Diseases like fibromyalgia, eczema is treated by this plant.
Also known as blanket flower, belongs to the sunflower family, called Asteraceae, found close to North and South America. The name blanket flower is named after the resemblance of the brightly pattern blankets in the Native America. The leaves are arranged in an alternate fashion, varying in shape. They can be yellow, orange, red, purple, brown etc, they are sometimes rolled into a funnel shape. The fruit has a modified calyx of scales. The root of this plant is used for gastroenteritis, skin disorders. The tea made out of this plant is also used for sore eyes.
Tagetes patula is a species of flowering plant in Mexico and Guatemala with various natural populations in many other countries. It is one of the growing bedding plants with colour of the flower ranging from yellow and orange. Height of this plant ranges from 1.6 ft and has a width of 1 ft. It is a hermaphrodite plant and blossoms from July to October. The leaves of all species contain oil glands. It is grown in both sandy and clayey soil having a good drainage system for them. For its growth partial sunlight is required. Uses are in the treatment of indigestion, colic, severe constipation, coughs and dysentery. It can also be used for treating eye sore.
Helianthus annuus is a genus comprising about 70 species of annual flower from the floral family of Asteraceae. These flowers are native to North and Central America. The structure of this flower is almost like a sun in combination with ligules and its round head. This species usually grows in maximum in peak summer and into early fall.
These plants are drought resistant. The seeds of this plant are used for human food, especially in the form of oil. The leaves are used for curing malarial fever, arthritis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia etc.
Lilies survive in extreme weather conditions. This flower possess the technique of preventing excess loss of water by retaining moisture. This method keeps the leaves dry by maintaining the flower head intact.
Gloriosa Daisy –
Like Sunflower, it has yellow petals and a deep brown center. It thrives in hot climate and has a height of 3.5 feet.
Normally is bluish in color, has a height of 7 inches. This plant preferably blooms in the northern hemisphere.
Blooms in the month of May, having color variation from purple-brown to dark red during its full bloom. It has attractive appearance and fragrance.
Ornamental flower of Brazil and blooms well in summer climate. It has sharp thorns in its stems, mainly a climbing plant.
Gardening plant grows effortlessly in warm climate.
It is considered as the best flowering plant in summer.
Winter annuals germinate in autumn or winter, grow throughout winter and then blooms in the spring season. Most of the other annual plants wait for the warmer seasons to prosper while they grow in winter only. They typically grow on lower they are usually sheltered from cold night breeze to snow cover. Some examples of winter annuals are-
Petunia (Petunia hybrida) It is a plant having 20 species having a South American origin. The leaves are sessile and have an oval shape with smooth margins. Flowers are funnel shaped having five petals. Petunias can be used for decorating interiors as an indoor plant which comes into various shapes of baskets. The in vitro callus culture of Petunia leaf is studied against bacteria like E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella etc. Medicinal uses of this plant are of the diseases like diabetes, bronchitis, high blood pressure etc.
Zinnia elegans is the winter annual plant belonging to the floral family of sunflower tribe. They are native to Southwestern United States to South America. Their structure is upright, they have the capability to survive low temperatures except the frost conditions. They have pointed leaves like arrows, narrow leaves, rough or soft leaves depending upon the type of plant. Some species of have antioxidant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticidal actions.
Common name, field marigold and scientific name; Calendula arvensis is the herbaceous plant in the daisy family of Asteraceae, marigolds are often found to be belonging to this family. These plants are found in the Mediterranean regions, western Europe. The petals of this plant are edible used in salads also used for food colour instead of saffron. Dyes are extracted from the flower to produce shades of honey, gold oranges, light browns and yellows. It acts as an anti-inflammatory through ointments for wounds. Plant research- based studies suggests that Calendula extracts have antiviral, antigenotoxic properties in vitro. However, Calendula plants are known to affect allergic reactions.
Chrysanthemum indicum is a herbaceous plant, 60-150 cm in height, having leaf arrangement in an alternate manner divided into leaflets with discontinued edges. The structure of the florescence has an array of several flower heads. Varying colours of flower found are white, yellow or red. Chrysanthemum starts blooming in the early autumn. It is also known as the favourite flower for the month of November. Chrysanthemum plant is used to treat chest pain, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, swelling, cold, fever, headache. Particularly to treat prostate cancer this plant is of great use. The fruit of this plant called cypsela, oval and light brown in colour.
Dahlia pinnata is the herbaceous dicotyledonous annual plant which is found in winter and grows in that season only. Dahlia has tuberous roots, the flower head is composite, the bunch of petals grouped together which seems as a single flower head. Petals and tubers were used by Aztecs for treating infected grazes, rashes and cracks in skin. The crushed and mashed up petals are used to provide relief from stings or insect bites.
It is a dwarf winter annual plant having a height of 2 feet, it prefers chilly spring or fall weather and may stop blooming once the weather heats up.
Grows till a height of 6 to 9 inches tall having silvery leaves, its is a drought resistant and disease resistant plant.
It is an indoor decorating plant which alleviates the beauty in pots, planters and garden beds. These plants grow over a height of 8 inches and have varying colors of white, rose, lavender and red. It prefers a shady location within a temperature of 65 degrees.
It grows 12 to 18 inches tall with delicious dark green, crinkled leaves. It grows in early spring, it can be stalked as fresh salads.
Frequently Asked Questions:
What are Annual Plants?
Annual plants are a type of plants which has the life span of a year of one growing season, completes its life span from germinating to producing seeds and finally to its termination.