13 Facts On AgCl Lewis Structure: Solubility, Polarity, Uses


AgCl lewis structure or silver chloride is an ionic compound with many properties associated with it. Its structural description and various physical and chemical properties are illustrated in this article.

AgCl lewis structure is an ionic compound made up of ions Ag+ and Cl-. To complete their octet stability criteria Ag being a metal donates its 1 electron to electronegative non-metal chlorine. This leads to the formation of silver cation and chloride anion bonded by an ionic or electrovalent bond. This provides us with the best possible AgCl lewis dot structure.

AgCl lewis structure
AgCl lewis structure

Discussing more AgCl lewis structure then it is a white crystalline solid and does not show solubility in water. It can dissociate into silver and chloride ions in the presence of solar energy or ultra violet radiations. Many classroom and laboratory experiments have shown the evidence of photochemical nature of AgCl lewis structure where the white solid changes into purplish color on exposure to the sun.

AgCl lewis structure also shows complex formation reactions. It can form coordination compounds by reacting with various ligands. AgCl lewis structure is solid and it adopts the fcc symmetry where every Ag+ ion is surrounded by 6 chloride ions just like the NaCl solid structure. This crystallographic arrangement of AgCl lewis structure depends on the conditions like the major concentration of free silver ions etc.

AgCl lewis structure is a very important salt from a chemical point of view. For instance, in electrochemical reactions, the AgCl lewis structure is used as an electrode for facilitating the movement of ions and electrons. It is also used for glazing materials because of its low solubility property and is popularly called “Inglaze Lustre”. In various conditions of mercury poisoning and botulism AgCl, lewis structure is used as an antidote. Apart from this AgCl lewis structure is used to preserve drinking water in tanks and deodorant products due to its antimicrobial nature.

To understand the structural properties of AgCl lewis structure it is important to understand how to draw its lewis structure representation.

How to draw AgCl lewis structure?

AgCl lewis structure involves 2 elements silver also called Argentum (Atomic number = 47 and electronic configuration = 2,8,18,18,1) and chlorine (Atomic number = 17 and electronic configuration = 2,8,7). To represent the AgCl lewis structure it is important to know whether the elements involved are metal or nonmetal. In this case, Ag is metal and Cl is a nonmetal so there will be no sharing of electrons because of the complete opposite natures of the elements. 

Silver being metal will lose its 1 electron to attain the noble gas configuration and chlorine due to its strong electronegative nature will attract that 1 electron to achieve the octet stability. Due to this silver will attain a positive charge and chlorine will attain a negative charge forming cations and anions respectively.

Ag+ cation and Cl- cation are held together by strong electrovalent and ionic forces hence AgCl lewis structure is an ionic or electrovalent compound.

There are many properties associated with AgCl lewis structure which are explained below in detail:

  1. AgCl lewis structure resonance
  2. AgCl lewis structure shape
  3. AgCl lewis structure formal charge
  4. AgCl lewis structure angle
  5. AgCl lewis structure octet rule
  6. AgCl lewis structure lone pairs
  7. AgCl valence electrons
  8. AgCl hybridization
  9. AgCl lewis structure uses
  10. AgCl polar or nonpolar
  11.  Compounds soluble in AgCl lewis structure
  12.  Compounds insoluble in AgCl lewis structure
  13. Is AgCl acid? 

AgCl lewis structure resonance

Resonance or mesomerism is a phenomenon where several contributing structures are responsible for explaining the properties of the compound or polyatomic molecules. The property of resonance is observed mostly in organic or coordination compounds. As far as AgCl lewis structure is concerned it does not exhibit resonance because it is ionic. There is only gain and loss of electrons so delocalization is not possible.

AgCl lewis structure shape

AgCl lewis structure exists in linear shape where both the ions are connected by electrovalent bond or ionic bond. AgCl lewis structure does not exist as a single molecule but as a polymer solid having a NaCl cage-like structure.

AgCl lewis structure has fcc (face-centered crystal) symmetry where each Ag+ ion is surrounded by an octahedron of chlorine ligands.

AgCl lewis structure formal charge

In the case of formal charge in ionic compounds, it is important to know that it is not zero but the charge observed on the individual atoms involved in the compound formation. The formal charge of AgCl lewis structure can be found using the formula:

FC = Valence electrons – Lone pair of electrons – ½ bonding electrons +/- no. of ions

FC of Ag in AgCl lewis structure = 1 – 0 – ½(2) + 1 = 1

FC of Cl in AgCl lewis structure = 7 – 0 – ½(2) -1 = 5

AgCl lewis structure angle

AgCl lewis structure does not exist as a molecule but as a crystalline 3d solid having fcc NaCl symmetry. Taking a single AgCl lewis structure molecule into consideration then it forms a 180-degree angle.

AgCl lewis structure octet rule

The octet rule is a stability condition exhibited by main group elements where the nearest noble gas configuration of 8 electrons in its valence shell shows stability.

Taking AgCl lewis structure into consideration then the octet stability criteria of both Ag and Cl molecules will be satisfied by donating and accepting 1 electron respectively. This leads to Ag+ cation and Cl- anion.

AgCl lewis structure lone pair

Lone pairs are the extra electrons present in the atom which do not have any role in chemical bond formation. Lone pairs are usually observed in covalent compounds where there is sharing of electrons. In AgCl lewis structure there are no lone pairs of electrons because after gaining and losing electrons both Ag and Cl change their composition to their nearest noble gas octet stability forming Ag+ and Cl- ions. Hence they do not have any lone pair of electrons.

AgCl lewis structure valence electrons

Valence electrons are the outermost electrons of an atom that have major participation in many chemical reactions and activities. AgCl lewis structure comprises 2 elements silver and chlorine. Ag being a metal with atomic number 47 has 1 electron in its valence shell. Similarly, Chlorine belongs to the halogen group and has 7 electrons in its valence shell.

AgCl lewis structure hybridization

Hybridization can be defined as the mixing of two orbitals to form new orbitals which have entirely different structures, shapes, and properties. As far as AgCl lewis structure is concerned then it is an ionic compound where the bonding is quite clear. So the concept of hybridization is not required. It is the concept that is used in covalent compounds where sharing of electrons takes place and there is no logical explanation for why inner orbital electrons participate in it.

AgCl lewis structure uses

AgCl lewis structure is very important in the chemical industry. It is used in the photochemical industry where the process of photoreduction takes place to form latent images. AgCl lewis structure is also used as photochromic lenses and glasses in the optical industry. They are used as a common electrode in many electrochemical reactions. In the medical industry AgCl lewis is structured as an antidote for mercury poisoning, in various dermatological creams, and as bandages and wound healing products.

AgCl lewis structure polarity

AgCl lewis structure is polar due to the huge electronegativity difference between silver and chlorine. Also due to this, there is a partial positive charge on Ag and a partial negative charge on chlorine which in turn provides a net dipole moment where the electron cloud is attracted towards chlorine.

Compounds soluble in AgCl lewis structure

The solubility of the AgCl lewis structure is quite unusual and different from its counterparts. Its solubility properties can be shown below:

AgCl lewis acid solubility in ammonia

The white precipitate of AgCl lewis acid is soluble in ammonia. It results in the formation of [Ag(NH3)2]Cl complex.

AgCl lewis acid solubility in concentrated HCl

AgCl lewis acid precipitates are dissolved in concentrated HCl giving a colorless solution of AgCl2

 AgCl lewis acid solubility in alkali cyanide solution

AgCl lewis acid is soluble in alkali cyanide solutions like NaCN and KCN which results in the formation of sodium Argento cyanide and potassium Argento cyanide complexes respectively.

Compounds insoluble in AgCl lewis structure

There are many compounds and molecules which are insoluble in the AgCl lewis structure. Some of them are:

AgCl lewis structure insolubility in water

AgCl lewis structure is insoluble in water unlike its counterparts NaCl because of the large size of the Ag atom. The intermolecular forces holding the AgCl lattice together are too strong for the hydrate ions to break through.

AgCl lewis structure insolubility in ethanol

AgCl lewis structure is insoluble in ethanol and various other hydroxyl organic compounds.

AgCl lewis structure insolubility in dilute acids

AgCl lewis acid is insoluble in dilute acids because of the reactivity difference between Ag and hydrogen ions. Ag is not that reactive and cannot replace the hydrogen ion from the dilute acid hence insoluble in dilute acids.

Is AgCl lewis structure acid?

It can be easily figured out whether the AgCl lewis structure is an acid or base. Here we know that silver is a transition metal so it can act as an acid. Chlorine on the other hand is derived from HCl which is again a strong acid that turns Cl into a weak conjugate base. The pH levels are mainly affected by the concentration of Ag hence showing that AgCl lewis structure is acidic and can show easy solubility in basic solutions.

Conclusion

Summarizing the whole AgCl lewis structure then it is an ionic compound forming a strong electrovalent bond by donation and acceptance of electron. Its all the properties can be judged from its structure only. It is a compound of high importance due to various applications exhibited by it in various scientific realms.

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